The Evolving Face of Cyber Conflict and International Law: A Futurespective
in person symposium
June 15 - 17, 2022
Mariana Salazar Albornoz is a Member of the Inter-American Juridical Committee of the Organization of American States, where she is Rapporteur for International Law Applicable to Cyberspace and for Privacy and Data Protection. She is a member of the ICRC’s Global Advisory Board of the Protection of Civilians from Digital Threats during Conflicts, as well as of the Editorial Board of the International Review of the Red Cross. Ms. Salazar is a Professor of Public International Law, International Humanitarian and Criminal Law at Universidad Iberoamericana in Mexico City. She also works as Academic Programs Associate for the Auschwitz Institute for the Prevention of Genocide and Mass Atrocities. Previously, she worked for 13 years at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Mexico on issues of Public International Law, International Human Rights, Humanitarian and Criminal Law. She was the Technical Secretary of Mexico’s National IHL Committee and Mexico’s Focal Point to the Global Network on Responsibility to Protect and to the Latin American Network on Prevention of Genocide and Mass Atrocities. She also has prior experience as a practicing lawyer in corporate law firms in Mexico City. Ms. Salazar holds a Law Degree from Universidad Iberoamericana and a Master’s Degree in International Law from the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva. She publishes frequently on the matters related to her expertise, and is a member of the International Law Association and of the Mexican Council on Foreign Relations.
Ronald Alcala is a Lieutenant Colonel in the United States Army. He is also an Associate Professor and Academy Professor of Law at the United States Military Academy, West Point, N.Y. Additionally, he serves as Managing Editor of the Lieber Institute for Law &amp;amp; Land Warfare’s Articles of War blog. Before joining the faculty, Lieutenant Colonel Alcala served as a Judge Advocate in a number of legal positions advising commanders on criminal law, international law, and administrative law issues. He was most recently assigned to the Office of the Judge Advocate General at Headquarters, Department of the Army. He is co-editor of The Impact of Emerging Technologies on the Law of Armed Conflict (Oxford University Press, 2019) and currently serves as a member of the Executive Committee of the American Society of International Law’s Lieber Society on the Law of Armed Conflict. Lieutenant Colonel Alcala’s other past assignments include Deputy Staff Judge Advocate, Special Operations Command Europe; Chief, Rule of Law, Multinational Division Center, Baghdad, Iraq; and Trial Counsel, Task Force Spartan and 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division, Jalalabad, Afghanistan. Lieutenant Colonel Alcala earned a B.A. in History and Classics from Williams College and a J.D. from the George Washington University Law School. He also holds a Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy (MALD) from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, and an LL.M. in Military Law from the Judge Advocate General’s School in Charlottesville, Va.
Catherine Amirfar is Co-Chair of Debevoise’s International Dispute Resolution and Public International Law Groups and a member of the firm’s Management Committee. Her practice focuses on public international law, international commercial and treaty arbitration, and complex international commercial litigation. With over twenty years of experience, Ms. Amirfar has argued before federal and state courts throughout the United States, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and arbitration tribunals sitting around the world. In 2021, Benchmark Litigation recognized her as International Arbitration Litigator of the Year, and she was named a Litigator of the Week by The American Lawyer. Ms. Amirfar currently serves as the Immediate Past President of the American Society of International Law (ASIL), for which she has been co-hosting a podcast called “International Law Behind the Headlines.” ASIL is one of the most prestigious organizations within the field of international law, with 4,000 members from more than 100 nations. She also serves as a member of the U.S. Department of State’s Advisory Committee on International Law, the Council on Foreign Relations, and the Advisory Committees of the American Law Institute for the Restatement (Fourth) of Foreign Relations Law of the United States and for the Restatement of the U.S. Law of International Commercial Arbitration. Ms. Amirfar is a member of the Governing Board of the International Council for Commercial Arbitration (ICCA) (the leading global organization of international arbitrators and arbitration practitioners), the Court of Arbitration of the Singapore International Arbitration Centre, and serves as Co-Chair of the ICCA-ASIL Task Force on Damages in International Arbitration. Prior to re-joining Debevoise in 2016, Ms. Amirfar spent two years as the Counselor on International Law to the Legal Adviser at the U.S. Department of State and received the State Department’s Superior Honor Award in recognition of her contributions to the Department.
Karine Bannelier-Christakis is Associate Professor of International Law at the Grenoble Alpes University (UGA). She is director of the Cybersecurity Institute and deputy director of the Chair Legal and Regulatory Implications of Artificial Intelligence at the Multidisciplinary Institute on Artificial Intelligence at UGA. Her research focuses on the capacity of international and European law to adapt to new international security challenges, in particular in cyberspace. She is interested in the roles and responsibilities of State and private actors where cybersecurity is concerned, focusing particularly on the issues of cybercrime, responses to cyber-attacks, hack-back and cyber due diligence. She has published or co-edited 8 books &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; more than 50 articles and book chapters. She has served as an expert on cybersecurity issues for several agencies and institutions including the French National Cybersecurity Agency (ANSSI), the French High Cyber Command (French Ministry of Armed Forces), the French National Gendarmerie, the ICRC and the OECD. She is currently following the negotiations for a UN Convention on Cybercrime on behalf of the Cross Border Data Forum.
Dr. Tess Bridgeman is Co-Editor-in-Chief of Just Security and Senior Fellow &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Visiting Scholar at NYU Law's Reiss Center on Law and Security. She served in the White House during the Obama administration as Special Assistant to the President, Associate Counsel to the President, and Deputy Legal Adviser to the National Security Council. Bridgeman previously served in the U.S. Department of State’s Office of the Legal Adviser as Special Assistant to the Legal Adviser and as an Attorney Adviser in the Office of Political-Military Affairs. She is an affiliate at Stanford University’s Center for International Security and Cooperation, where she has taught courses on cyber law and policy, and lectures on national security law at Berkeley Law. Bridgeman has a DPhil in International Relations from Oxford University; a JD from NYU Law School; and a BA from Stanford University. She chairs the Strategic Initiatives Committee of the American Society for International Law (ASIL) and serves on the boards of the Women’s Foundation California and the Center for Arms Control and Nonproliferation.
Sarah Cleveland is a noted expert in the areas of international law, U.S. foreign relations law, human rights, and national security. In addition to teaching, researching, and writing about these issues, she is a leading figure in these fields through her longstanding work domestically and with international legal organizations. From 2009 to 2011, Cleveland served as the counselor on international law to the legal adviser at the U.S. Department of State and she remains a member of the Secretary of State’s Advisory Committee on International Law. She is faculty co-director of the Law School’s Human Rights Institute, is a member of the American Law Institute, and served as co-coordinating reporter of the American Law Institute’s Restatement (Fourth) of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States (2012–2018). Cleveland began her legal career as a Skadden Fellow, representing migrant farmworkers in south Florida. She previously served as a member of the board of editors of the International Review of the Red Cross. She was vice chair and a member of the U.N. Human Rights Committee (2015–2018) and was the U.S. observer member and member on the Venice Commission of the Council of Europe (2010–2019). She has written widely on issues of international law, national security, and human rights, including the casebook Human Rights (2nd ed. 2009 and update 2013) and The Restatement and Beyond: The Past, Present, and Future of U.S. Foreign Relations Law, Paul Stephen and Sarah Cleveland, eds. (Oxford University Press, 2020). Cleveland is a former Rhodes Scholar and served as a law clerk to U.S. Supreme Court Justice Harry Blackmun. Before arriving at Columbia in 2007, she was the Marrs McLean Professor in Law at the University of Texas Law School. She has held visiting professorships at Harvard and Michigan law schools and at the University Panthéon-Assas and Sciences-Po University in Paris.
Professor Gary Corn is a recently retired U.S. Army colonel, and is widely recognized as one of the nation’s top experts on cyber and national security law. Prior to joining TLS, Professor Corn served over twenty-seven years on active duty in the U.S. Army as a military attorney practicing national security law at the highest levels within the Department of Defense. His final five years he served as the Staff Judge Advocate (General Counsel) to U.S. Cyber Command. Professor Corn is a frequent, and highly-sought out speaker at international and national conferences and has published numerous articles, book chapters, and blog posts, including in the American Journal of International Law, The Temple International and Comparative Law Journal, the Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, and on Just Security. For the past several years, he has, via U.S. Cyber Command, run a major international law conference, drawing hundreds of military and civilian leading international law scholars and practitioners. During his military career, Professor Corn also served as a Deputy Legal Counsel to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Operational Law Branch Chief in the Office of the Judge Advocate General of the Army, a Special Assistant United States Attorney in the District of Columbia, and on deployment as the Chief of International Law for Combined Forces Command in Afghanistan. Professor Corn received a JD from the George Washington University, a BA in International Relations from Bucknell University, an LLM from the U.S. Army Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School, and an MA in National Security Studies from the United States Army War College. Professor Corn is an Advisory Board Director for the Cyber Security Forum Initiative.
Michael L. Diakiwski is the Director, Senior Cybersecurity Counsel at Palo Alto Networks providing strategic and legal advice to stakeholders across the company, including senior leaders, information security and technology teams, and policy and government affairs teams regarding cybersecurity compliance, incident response, data privacy and protection, and company-wide crisis matters. Previously he was an Associate in the privacy &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; cybersecurity and national security practices at a major Washington, DC law firm. In government, Michael served as an official with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, as Counselor to the Secretary, and before that, as Special Assistant and Attorney-Advisor to the General Counsel. Prior to that, he served in junior roles in the White House, on the Senate Judiciary Committee, and as a law clerk at the Department of Justice and the New York State Attorney General’s Office. He graduated from Georgetown Law and earned his undergraduate degree from Providence College.
Dr Talita Dias is the Shaw Foundation Research Fellow in Law at Jesus College, University of Oxford, as well as a Research Fellow with the Oxford Institute for Ethics, Law and Armed Conflict (ELAC). She is a founding member of the Oxford Process on International Law Protections in Cyberspace and has co-authored the Oxford Statements Oxford Process on International Law Protections in Cyberspace. Prior to that, Talita was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at Oxford’s Blavatnik School of Government, where she led ELAC’s Cyber Due Diligence project. Her current research focuses on the application of international law to new technologies and the international regulation of information operations, including disinformation and hate speech. Talita teaches International Law &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Public Policy on the Master of Public Policy Programme and has previously taught English Criminal Law, International Criminal Law, and Public International Law in Oxford. Talita has a DPhil and a Master’s degree in Law from the University of Oxford and a Bachelor’s degree in Law from the Federal University of Pernambuco in Brazil. She is a qualified lawyer in Brazil.
Dr Heather A. Harrison Dinniss is a Senior Lecturer at the Centre for International and Operational Law at the Swedish Defence University. Heather’s research focuses on the impact of modern warfare on international humanitarian law; in particular, on emerging military technologies such as cyber warfare, advanced and autonomous weapons systems and the legal aspects of human enhancement techniques on members of the armed forces. She is the author of Cyber War and Laws of War (Cambridge University Press, 2012) which analyses the status and use of cyber operations in international law and the law of armed conflict. Heather has served as a member of advisory groups to the Swedish Government on autonomous weapons systems and cyber operations, a member of the International Law Association’s Study Group on Cyber Terrorism and International Law (2014-2016) and as a core expert for two projects to establish Manuals on International Law Applicable to Military Uses of Outer Space (MILAMOS (2016-18) &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Woomera (2018-)).
Dan Efrony is an associate researcher in the Cyber Law Program of the ‘Federman’ Cyber Security Research Center at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, formerly the M.A.G. (Military Advocate General) of the IDF. MG Dan retired in 2016 after four decades of military career divided into two main stages, first as an Intelligence officer in various commanding positions, the second, within the M.A.G. Corps. Dan's legal military career spanned several senior positions, including the Military Advocate of the Northern Command, Chief Defense Counsel, Deputy to the M.A.G and the M.A.G.
Brian Egan is a Partner in the National Security/CFIUS practice of Skadden. Mr. Egan has advised on dozens of CFIUS reviews for clients spanning a wide range of business sectors and jurisdictions, including Asia, Europe and the Middle East. He also has counseled on numerous export controls issues, including compliance, classification, licensing, enforcement and related due diligence. Additionally, he has significant experience working with clients on sanctions compliance and risk mitigation, civil and criminal enforcement matters, and “blacklisting” issues. A former senior legal official in the Barack Obama administration, Mr. Egan has a deep background in domestic and international legal matters that influence U.S. government national security and foreign relations policies and programs. He held several roles in federal government, serving as the senior-most lawyer at both the National Security Council and the Department of State, as well as deputy White House counsel to then-President Obama and assistant general counsel at the Department of the Treasury. In recognition of his work, he received numerous awards from government agencies, including the National Security Council; the departments of State, Treasury and Justice; and the Central Intelligence Agency.
Kristen Eichensehr writes and teaches about cybersecurity, foreign relations, international law and national security law. She has written on, among other issues, the attribution of state-sponsored cyberattacks, the important roles that private parties play in cybersecurity, the constitutional allocation of powers between the president and Congress in foreign relations, and the role of foreign sovereign amici in the Supreme Court. She received the 2018 Mike Lewis Prize for National Security Law Scholarship for her article, “Courts, Congress, and the Conduct of Foreign Relations,” published in the University of Chicago Law Review. In 2021 she became director of UVA Law’s National Security Law Center. Eichensehr is the editor of the American Journal of International Law section on Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law and a member of the editorial boards of the national security blog Just Security, and of the Journal of National Security Law &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Policy. She is a member of the U.S. State Department's Advisory Committee on International Law, a member of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Medicine Forum on Cyber Resilience, an affiliate at the Stanford Center for International Security and Cooperation, and an affiliate scholar at the Center for Internet and Society at Stanford Law School. Eichensehr clerked for Justices Sandra Day O’Connor and Sonia Sotomayor of the Supreme Court of the United States and for Judge Merrick B. Garland of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit. She also served as special assistant to the legal adviser of the U.S. Department of State and practiced at Covington &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Burling in Washington, D.C.
Veronica Glick is a partner in Mayer Brown’s Washington, DC office and a member of the firm’s National Security and Cybersecurity &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Data Privacy practices. She is also a member of the firm’s Litigation &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Dispute Resolution practice and Congressional Investigations &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Crisis Management team. Veronica focuses her practice on complex and cutting-edge legal issues regarding national security, cybersecurity and international law, with particular experience responding to multijurisdictional cyber incidents. Veronica serves on a pro bono basis as Deputy Chief Counsel for Cybersecurity and National Security to the US Cyberspace Solarium Commission, a bipartisan commission established by Congress to develop a comprehensive strategy to defend the US from significant attacks in cyberspace. Veronica also serves as a member of the United Nations Experts Committee countering terrorism through information and communications technologies (ICT), including with regard to prevention of exploitation of ICT and initiatives to facilitate sharing of digital evidence. She was recently named among “Five Fresh Faces to Know in Privacy and Cybersecurity” as part of Bloomberg Law’s “They’ve Got Next” series, which spotlights lawyers who are “raising the bar” in their field. Veronica also serves as co-chair of the firm's DC Women's Forum. Veronica received a J.D. from Columbia Law School, where she was a Harlan Fiske Stone Scholar, a John Paul Stevens Fellow, recipient of the Parker School Recognition of Achievement in International and Comparative Law, and a member of the Columbia Journal of Transnational Law. She received an LL.B. from the London School of Economics. Veronica is member of the Bar of the State of New York and of the District of Columbia.
Ryan Goodman is the Anne and Joel Ehrenkranz Professor of Law at New York University School of Law. He served as special counsel to the general counsel of the Department of Defense (2015-16). In addition to his posts at NYU School of Law, Goodman is an associated member of the Department of Sociology, an affiliated member of the Department of Politics at NYU, and a Distinguished Fellow at the National Institute of Military Justice. Before joining the Law School, he was the Rita E. Hauser Professor of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law and director of the Human Rights Program at Harvard Law School. Goodman has published articles in leading law reviews and has also co-authored several books, including Socializing States: Promoting Human Rights Through International Law with Derek Jinks (2013) (winner of top annual book award by the American Society of International Law). His work makes significant contributions to the law of armed conflict, human rights law, and US national security law. The US Supreme Court relied on Goodman’s amicus briefs in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld when it overturned the government’s system of military commissions, and in Lawrence v. Texas, when it overturned an anti-sodomy statute. Goodman received his BA in government and philosophy from the University of Texas at Austin. He earned his JD from Yale Law School and a PhD in sociology from Yale University. He is a member of the board of editors of the American Journal of International Law, a member of the US Department of State’s Advisory Committee on International Law, and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He is also the founding co-editor-in-chief of the national security online forum, Just Security.
Colonel Pete Hayden currently serves as the Staff Judge Advocate, U.S. Cyber Command, Fort Meade, Maryland. His previous assignments include Special Counsel to the Army Judge Advocate General; Deputy Legal Advisor for the National Security Council; Staff Judge Advocate for the 10th Mountain Division, including deployment in support of OPERATION FREEDOM’S SENTINEL; Deputy Legal Counsel to the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff; and Associate Professor of International Law at the Naval War College, Newport, RI. Colonel Hayden’s most recent article on preserving commanders’ “legal maneuver space” in future conflicts, co-authored with LTG Charles Pede, was published in the March/April 2021 edition of Military Review. He is a graduate of Colby College, Cornell Law School, the College of Naval Command &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Staff, and the National War College.
Mohamed Helal is an Assistant Professor of Law at The Ohio State University Moritz College of Law, and an affiliated faculty member of the Mershon Center for International Security Studies. Dr. Helal specializes in Public International Law. His research interests and scholarship extend to various areas of international law. These include the rules regulating the use of armed force by states (jus ad bellum), international organizations and U.N. law, the theory and history of international law, the law of the sea, the law of the non-navigational uses of international watercourses, and the legal aspects of international security affairs. In addition, Dr. Helal engages in interdisciplinary research at the intersection of international law and international relations theory. Dr. Helal’s work has appeared in many leading peer-reviewed journals including the European Journal of International Law, Global Constitutionalism, Climate Law, the American Journal of International Law – Unbound, and the Florida Tax Review, and several student-run journals including the Florida State University Law Review, the Harvard National Security Journal, the N.Y.U. Journal of International Law &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Politics, the Fordham International Law Journal, the Emory International Law Review, the DePaul Law Review, and the Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Policy. Dr. Helal has also contributed chapters to numerous edited volumes. Dr. Helal teaches courses and seminars on Public International Law, the Law of Contracts, the law governing the resort to armed force by states (jus ad bellum), the law of armed conflict (jus in bello), and the theory and history of international law. Prior to coming to Moritz, Dr. Helal was a lecturer-on-law at Harvard Law School where he obtained his S.J.D. and LL.M. degrees. He also taught International Criminal Law as a visiting assistant professor at the Section Française of the Ain Shams University Faculty of Law and taught International Human Rights Law at the American University in Cairo. Dr. Helal has substantial policy experience in the field of international law through many years of service as a diplomat and as an international civil servant. After serving on the Cabinet of the Secretary General of the League of Arab States during 2002 and 2003, he joined the Egyptian Diplomatic Corps, and became a member of the Cabinet of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Egypt from 2005 until 2009. During that period, he worked on issues relating to Multilateral Diplomacy and International Organizations, with a focus on human rights and humanitarian affairs at the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation. In 2011, Dr. Helal joined the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry (BICI) as the commission’s legal officer, and he also served as the legal counsel to the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Egypt during 2016.
Duncan B. Hollis is Laura H. Carnell Professor of Law at Temple University School of Law. He is the editor of the award-winning Oxford Guide to Treaties (2012, 2nd ed., 2020), International Law (7th ed., 2018, with Allen Weiner), and Defending Democracies: Combating Foreign Election Interference in a Digital Age (2021, with Jens Ohlin). He teaches in the areas of public international law and cybersecurity, which are also at the center of his research agenda. Professor Hollis is a Non-Resident Scholar at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, an elected member of the American Law Institute, and a strategic consultant for the Microsoft Corporation’s Digital Peace Team. From 2016-2020, Professor Hollis served as an elected member of one of the Organization of American States’ principal organs -- the Inter-American Juridical Committee. There, he has served as Rapporteur for projects producing guidelines on binding and non-binding agreements as well as improving the transparency of how States understand international law applies in cyberspace. Most recently, Professor Hollis’s research led him to co-convene The Oxford Process on International Law Protections in Cyberspace, a process housed at the Oxford Institute for Ethics, Law and Armed Conflict that, to date, has produced five widely publicized statements on international law protections for healthcare, vaccine research, elections, information operations, and ransomware.
Eric Talbot Jensen teaches and writes in the areas of Public International Law, Criminal Law, The Law of Armed Conflict, International Criminal Law, Cyber Law and National Security Law. His recent scholarship has appeared, among others, in the Texas, Temple, Houston, and Israel Law Reviews; the Virginia, Stanford, Chicago, Michigan, and Minnesota Journals of International Law; the Stanford Law and Policy Review; and International Law Studies. Professor Jensen is a co-author on a law school casebook on the Law of Armed Conflict and a student treatise on National Security Law for Aspen Publishing and a co-author on an Oxford University text analyzing application of the laws of war to the war on terror. He was a member of the group of experts that produced both the Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare and the recently released Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations. Professor Jensen recently returned to BYU Law School after serving for one year as the Special Counsel to the Department of Defense General Counsel. Prior to joining the BYU law faculty in 2011, Professor Jensen spent 2 years teaching at Fordham Law School in New York City and 20 years in the United States Army as both a Cavalry Officer and as a Judge Advocate. During his time as a Judge Advocate, Professor Jensen served in various positions including as the Chief of the Army’s International Law Branch; Deputy Legal Advisor for Task Force Baghdad; Professor of International and Operational Law at The Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School; legal advisor to the US contingent of UN Forces deployed to Skopje, Macedonia as part of UNPREDEP; and legal advisor in Bosnia in support of Operation Joint Endeavor/Guard.
Darin Johnson is an Associate Professor of Law at Howard University School of Law. Professor Johnson received his B.A. from Yale College in 1997 and his J.D. from Harvard Law School in 2000. At Harvard Law School, he was an Executive Editor of the Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review. Professor Johnson was recognized by Harvard Law School with the Irving R. Kaufman Public Interest Fellowship, the Samuel Heyman Fellowship for Public Service, and the Wasserstein Public Interest Fellowship. During his final year of law school, Professor Johnson was selected as one of only two commissioned U.S. Army officers to serve in the Secretary of the Army General Counsel’s Office Honors Program at the Pentagon. He served as an Assistant General Counsel to the Army Secretariat for four years, completing his military service with the rank of Captain. After leaving the Pentagon, Professor Johnson continued to practice law as an attorney-adviser in the U.S. Department of State’s Office of the Legal Adviser. During his tenure with the Office of the Legal Adviser, Professor Johnson advised on a wide range of international legal issues, involving Middle Eastern, political-military, United Nations, and other multilateral matters. In 2007, he served as the Legal Adviser to the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad, Iraq. Professor Johnson also served on detail to the Office of the White House Counsel in 2011-12. After returning to the State Department in 2012, Professor Johnson served as Chief of Staff in the newly formed Office of the Special Coordinator for Middle East Transitions, which was tasked with coordinating U.S. assistance to politically transitioning countries in the Middle East and North Africa following the Arab Spring uprisings. He received several Departmental honors for his work.
Rain Liivoja is an Associate Professor at the University of Queensland Law School, where he leads the Law and the Future of War research group. Rain is also a Senior Fellow with the Lieber Institute for Law and Land Warfare at the United States Military Academy at West Point. He holds the title of Adjunct Professor of International Law at the University of Helsinki, where he is affiliated with the Erik Castrén Institute of International Law and Human Rights. Rain's current research focuses on the legal challenges associated with military applications of science and technology. His broader research and teaching interest include general international law, the law of armed conflict and human rights law. He is the author of Criminal Jurisdiction over Armed Forces Abroad (Cambridge University Press 2017), and a co-editor of Autonomous Cyber Capabilities under International Law (NATO CCDCOE 2021), the Routledge Handbook of the Law of Armed Conflict (Routledge 2016) and International Law-making: Essays in Honour of Jan Klabbers(Routledge 2013). Rain is a Co-Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies (published by Brill | Nijhoff). Rain is a UQ Ally and a UQ Mental Health Champion. He is a member of the Queensland Divisional Advisory Board of the Australian Red Cross. Before joining the University of Queensland, Rain held academic appointments at the Universities of Melbourne, Helsinki and Tartu. He has been a visiting scholar at Georgetown University, the University of Oxford and the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, and a visiting lecturer at the Estonian Military Academy and the Riga Graduate School of Law. Rain holds an undergraduate degree in law from the University of Tartu, and a masters and a doctorate in public international law from the University of Helsinki. He completed a Graduate Certificate in University Teaching at the University of Melbourne.
Dr. Asaf Lubin is an Associate Professor of Law at Indiana University Maurer School of Law and a Fellow at IU’s Center for Applied Cybersecurity Research (CACR). He is additionally an affiliated fellow at Yale Law School’s Information Society Project, a Faculty Associate at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University, and a visiting Scholar at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem Federmann Cyber Security Research Center. Dr. Lubin’s research centers around the intersection of law and technology, particularly as it relates to the regulation of cybersecurity harms, liabilities, and insurance as well as policy design around governmental and corporate surveillance, data protection, and internet governance. His work draws on his experiences as a former intelligence analyst, Sergeant Major (Res.), with the IDF Intelligence Branch as well as his vast practical training and expertise in national security law and foreign policy. Dr. Lubin’s work additionally reflects his time spent serving as a Robert L. Bernstein International Human Rights Fellow with Privacy International, a London-based non-for-profit devoted to advancing the right to privacy in the digital age and curtailing unfettered forms of governmental and corporate surveillance. Dr. Lubin holds a dual degree in law and international relations (LLB/BA, magna cum laude, ’14) from Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and a Master of Laws (LLM, ’15) and a Doctor of the Science of Law (JSD, ’20) degrees from Yale Law School. Dr. Lubin has previously written on and taught seminars in public and private international law, cybersecurity and cyber risk management, torts law, international human rights and humanitarian law, and criminal procedure and counterterrorism. He has published with the Harvard International Law Journal, the Harvard National Security Journal, the Yale Journal of International Law, and the Chicago Journal of International Law, and written for Just Security and Lawfare.
Liina Lumsite has served as a legal advisor for the Estonian government and a researcher on international law at the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE). She is also a lecturer on international criminal law and legal argumentation at the University of Tartu and is also currently in the doctoral program at the University of Tartu. Her thesis will focus on Russian approaches to international law and cyber operations.
Dr Kubo Ma?ák is a legal adviser at the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). Prior to joining the ICRC in 2019, he worked as an Associate Professor of Public International Law at the University of Exeter in the United Kingdom. Kubo is the author of the book ‘Internationalized Armed Conflicts in International Law’ (OUP 2018) and the General Editor of the ‘Cyber Law Toolkit’, an interactive online resource on the international law of cyber operations.
Marko Milanovic is Professor of Public International Law and Co-Director of the Human Rights Law Centre at the University of Nottingham School of Law. He is co-editor of EJIL: Talk!, the blog of the European Journal of International Law, as well as a member of the EJIL’s Editorial Board. Professor Milanovic was formerly Vice-President and member of the Executive Board of the European Society of International Law. He held visiting professorships at Michigan Law School, Columbia Law School, Deakin Law School, the University of Bologna, the University of the Philippines College of Law, and the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. He is co-general editor of the ongoing Tallinn Manual 3.0 project on the application of international law in cyberspace and Senior Fellow, NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence.
Dr. Tal Mimran is an adjunct lecturer at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, in which he coordinates the International Law Forum of the Hebrew University, and serves as research director at the Federmann Cyber Security Research Center. In the past, he served as a researcher at the Israel Democracy Institute, edited an online human rights journal, and worked as a legal adviser in the Israeli Ministry of Justice. Tal also served, in reserve duty, as a legal adviser in the Israel Defense Forces (international law department).
Elina Noor is Director, Political-Security Affairs and Deputy Director, Washington, D.C. Office at the Asia Society Policy Institute. A native of Malaysia, Elina’s work focuses on security developments in Southeast Asia, global governance and technology, and preventing/countering violent extremism. Previously, Elina was Associate Professor at the Daniel K. Inouye Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies. Prior to that, she was Director, Foreign Policy and Security Studies at the Institute of Strategic and International Studies Malaysia. She was also formerly with the Brookings Institution’s Project on U.S. Relations with the Islamic World. Between 2017 and 2019, Elina was a member of the Global Commission on the Stability of Cyberspace. She currently serves on the ICRC’s Global Advisory Board on digital threats during conflict. Elina read law at Oxford University. She obtained an LL.M (Public International Law) from The London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London, graduating with distinction at the top of her class. A recipient of the Perdana (Malaysian Prime Minister’s) Fellowship, she also holds an MA in Security Studies from Georgetown University where she was a Women in International Security Scholar.
Ori Pomson is a PhD candidate at the Faculty of Law of the University of Cambridge, focusing on the limitations of the judicial function of international courts and tribunals. Previously, he served for six years as an officer (rank of captain) in the International Law Department of the Israel Defence Forces, where he served as Assistant Legal Adviser for Cyber Affairs. Ori holds an LLB and an LLM from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and is also a member of the Israel Bar.
Philip Robbins is General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer for X Cyber Group, an intelligence and data company founded by ex UK government intelligence specialists. The company creates proprietary capability to index and process a vast array of open-source information - creating unique datasets which are used to keep clients safe online. Philip has more than 20 years’ experience advising the UK Government on challenging and sensitive matters relating to defence and intelligence. For the last 14 years, he has focused on international and domestic law considerations for offensive and defensive cyber operations, and global data acquisition, processing, and transfers. In addition to being a TLS Advisory Board member, Philip is a visiting Fellow of Cranfield University in the UK.
Dr. Przemys?aw Roguski is an Assistant Professor of Law at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków (Poland). His research focuses on the law of peacetime cyber operations and different aspects of international law relating to cybersecurity, ICT and internet governance. He is an Expert on cybersecurity at the Ko?ciuszko Institute and a Senior Advisor at the ICT4Peace foundation, where he conducts workshops and masterclasses on cyber diplomacy and international law for diplomats and governmental employees, i.a. for the Organization of American States’ cybersecurity program. Przemys?aw holds law degrees from the University of Mainz (Germany), Trinity College Dublin (Ireland) and a PhD in international law from Jagiellonian University.
Monica M. Ruiz is a Program Manager in Microsoft’s Digital Diplomacy team. In this role she focuses on efforts to promote stability in cyberspace and advance trust, security and human rights in this domain. Prior to joining Microsoft, Monica was the Program Fellow for the Cyber Initiative and Special Projects at the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Earlier in her career, she was the first recipient of the U.S. Boren Fellowship to travel to Estonia where her research focused on cybersecurity policy and strategy. Born in Ecuador and raised in Miami, she holds a bachelor’s degree from Florida International University and a master’s degree from The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. Follow her on Twitter at @mruiz12.
David E. Sanger is a White House and national security correspondent, and a senior writer. In a 38-year reporting career for The New York Times, he has been on three teams that have won Pulitzer Prizes, most recently in 2017 for international reporting. His newest book, “The Perfect Weapon: War, Sabotage and Fear in the Cyber Age,’’ and an HBO documentary by the same title, examine the emergence of cyberconflict and its role in changing the nature of global power. He is also the author of two Times best sellers on foreign policy and national security: “The Inheritance: The World Obama Confronts and the Challenges to American Power,” published in 2009, and “Confront and Conceal: Obama’s Secret Wars and Surprising Use of American Power,” published in 2012. For The Times, Mr. Sanger has served as Tokyo bureau chief, Washington economic correspondent, White House correspondent during the Clinton and Bush administrations, and chief Washington correspondent. Returning to Washington, Mr. Sanger turned to a wide range of diplomatic and national security issues, from nuclear proliferation to the rise of cyberconflict among nations. In reporting for The Times and “Confront and Conceal,” he revealed the story of Olympic Games, the code name for the most sophisticated cyberattack in history, the American-Israeli effort to sabotage Iran’s nuclear program with the Stuxnet worm. His journalistic pursuit of the origins of Stuxnet became the subject of the documentary “Zero Days,” which made the short list of Academy Award documentaries in 2016. Mr. Sanger was a leading member of the team that investigated the causes of the Challenger disaster in 1986, which was awarded a Pulitzer in national reporting the following year. A second Pulitzer, in 1999, was awarded to a team that investigated the struggles within the Clinton administration over controlling technology exports to China. He has also won the Weintal Prize for diplomatic reporting for his coverage of the Iraq and Korea crises, the Aldo Beckman prize for coverage of the presidency, and, in two separate years, the Merriman Smith Memorial Award, for coverage of national security issues. “Nuclear Jihad,” the documentary that Mr. Sanger reported for Discovery/Times Television, won the duPont-Columbia Award for its explanation of the workings of the A. Q. Khan nuclear proliferation network. That coverage was also a finalist for a Pulitzer.
Michael Schmitt is the G. Norman Lieber Distinguished Scholar at West Point, Professor of Law at the University of Reading, and Professor Emeritus and Stockton Distinguished Scholar-in-Residence at the U.S. Naval War College.
Annita Sciacovelli is an Adjunct Professor of International law, with tenure, in the Law Department University of Bari Aldo Moro (UNIBA) Italy. She also is a Professor of International law, University of international studies in Rome and a roject consultant UNIBA-BCVTECH. She previously was a visiting Research Fellow of the IESE Business school of Barcelona, Spain, researcher fellow on Cybersecurity, Institute of National Security Studies, Jerusalem. She is a lawyer of the Bar of Bari, a member of the Advisory Board of the International Institute for Peace, Vienna, Austria, a member of the Cyber Security&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Warfare Commission, Italian Society of studies on intelligence, a member of the Scientific Committee of the scientific review Cyber, Intelligence and Security, Institute for National Security Studies, Tel Aviv University, a member of the International Institute of Humanitarian Law of San Remo (Italy), an editorial board member of the review Sicurezza e Intelligence, and on the Scientific Committee member of the review Anti riciclaggio &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Compliance.
Lieutenant General John (Jack) N.T. Shanahan, United States Air Force, Retired, retired in 2020 after a 36-year military career. In his final assignment he served as the inaugural Director of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) Joint Artificial Center (JAIC). Jack served in a variety of operational and staff positions in various fields including flying, intelligence, policy, and command and control. He commanded at the squadron, group, wing, Agency, and Numbered Air Force levels. As the first Director of the Algorithmic Warfare Cross-Functional Team (Project Maven), Jack established and led DoD’s pathfinder AI fielding program charged with bringing AI capabilities to intelligence collection and analysis. Jack is a 2022 graduate of the North Carolina State University Master of International Studies program. He served as a Special Government Employee supporting the National Security Commission on Artificial Intelligence, and is now serving on the Board of Advisors for the Special Competitive Studies Project (SCSP). He is also an Adjunct Senior Fellow with the Technology and National Security Program at the Center for a New American Security; serves on the Board of Advisors for the Common Mission Project; is an advisor to The Changing Character of War Centre (Oxford University); is a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEE-SA) Autonomous Weapons Systems Assurance and Safety Subcommittee; and is a member of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) Committee on Testing, Evaluating, and Assessing Artificial Intelligence-Enabled Systems under Operational Conditions for the Department of the Air Force. He also serves as a consultant on the use of AI-enabled technologies for national security.
Professor Yuval Shany is the Hersch Lauterpacht Chair in International Law and former Dean of the Law Faculty of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the Director of the Federmann Cyber Security Research Center. He in the psat served as a member of the UN Human Rights Committee (2013-2020; Chair 2018-2019) – an expert body monitoring compliance by 172 States with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights – and as the Academic Chair of the Minerva Center for Human Rights at the Hebrew University, and as a Vice President for Research at the Israel Democracy Institute.
Alissa Starzak is the Vice President and Global Head of Public Policy at Cloudflare, a web performance and security company that is on a mission to help build a better Internet. Cloudflare runs one of the world’s largest networks, protecting and accelerating millions of web properties worldwide. Prior to joining Cloudflare, Alissa worked for the U.S government in a variety of national security positions. Most recently, she served as the 21st General Counsel of the Department of the Army, after confirmation by the Senate. Before her appointment as Army General Counsel, Alissa served as the Deputy General Counsel (Legislation) of the U.S. Department of Defense, advising on legal issues with a legislative or congressional component and managing an office of attorneys responsible for developing the Department of Defense legislative program. Prior to moving to the Department of Defense, she served as Counsel to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and as an Assistant General Counsel at the Central Intelligence Agency’s Office of General Counsel. She also worked in private practice in Washington, D.C., and clerked for the Honorable E. Grady Jolly, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. She graduated from Amherst College and the University of Chicago Law School.
Wieteke Theeuwen is a legal officer with the International Law Division of the Legal Affairs Department at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands. In this capacity, Ms. Theeuwen inter alia provides advice to the senior leadership of the ministry on international humanitarian law, international criminal law, and the application of international law to the cyber domain. Prior to joining the Ministry, Ms. Theeuwen worked with several civil society organisations, including the Coalition for the International Criminal Court and the Civic Coalition for Palestinian Rights in Jerusalem. She is a member of the Kalshoven-Gieskesforum on International Humanitarian Law, a research forum affiliated with Leiden University and the Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies. She is also and external staff member of the University of Amsterdam and a board member of the Women in International Law (WIL) Network. Ms. Theeuwen holds an LL.M degree in Public International Law from Leiden University and a bachelor’s degree in European and Dutch Law from Maastricht University.
Heli Tiirmaa-Klaar has been the Director of the Digital Society Institute at the European School of Management and Technology in Berlin since January 2022. From 2018 to 2021, she served as Ambassador for Cyber Diplomacy and Director General for the Cyber Diplomacy Department at the Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, where she led the efforts to promote international law and cyber norms during Estonia’s tenure on the United Nations Security Council. From 2012 to 2018, Tiirmaa-Klaar worked as a Head of Cyber Policy Coordination at the European External Action Service, where she coordinated EU external relations on cyber issues and co-led preparations of European Cyber Security Strategies. She set up EU strategic level cyber dialogues with the United States, India, Brazil, Japan, South Korea, and China as well as international organizations. She also kicked off EU global cyber capacity building programs and steered the development of the EU Cyber Diplomacy Toolbox to bolster European response to malicious cyber activities. In 2011, she was assigned to the NATO International Staff to prepare the NATO Cyber Defence Policy. Tiirmaa-Klaar has been working on cyber and tech policies since 2007 when she led the development of the first whole-of-government Estonian Cyber Security Strategy.
Dr. Eneken Tikk leads Power and Influence Studies at the Cyber Policy Institute (CPI) in Jyväskylä, Finland. Her work at CPI focuses on questions of strategic stability, cybersecurity governance, normative leadership and state behavior. She is Senior Researcher at the Institute of Software Sciences at Tallinn University of Technology, and a Fellow of the Erik Castrén Institute of the University of Helsinki, where she focuses on developments in international law in the context of digital security. Dr. Tikk also serves as Senior Advisor to the Board of the ICT for Peace Foundation in Geneva, Switzerland, advising governments, policy and decision makers on international peace and security issues in the context of ICTs. Previously, she held the position of Senior Fellow for Cyber Security at the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS). She has been a member of the Estonian delegation in the UN Group of Governmental Experts (2012-2013, 2014-2015 and 2016-2017), advising the Estonian experts on international law, international cyber policy and cyber diplomacy. Eneken is a practicing attorney in Estonia, with a specialisation in IT law and personal data protection.
Jennifer Trahan is Clinical Professor at NYU's Center for Global Affairs where she directs the Concentration in International Law and Human Rights. She is a prolific scholar, having authored scores of law review articles and book chapters including on the International Criminal Court’s crime of aggression. Her book, “Existing Legal Limits to Security Council Veto Power in the Face of Atrocity Crimes” was published in 2020 by Cambridge University Press. She holds various positions with the American Branch of the International Law Association and is on the Use of Force Committee of the International Law Association. Additionally, she is Convenor of the Global Institute for the Prevention of Aggression. She has served as an amicus curiae to the International Criminal Court on the appeal of the situation regarding Afghanistan, and served on the Council of Advisers on the Application of the Rome Statute to Cyberwarfare. She recently authored: “Contributing to Cyber Peace by Maximizing the Potential for Deterrence: Criminalization of Cyber-Attacks under the International Criminal Court's Rome Statute” (book chapter), and “The Criminalization of Cyber-Attacks under the Rome Statute,” J. of Int’l Criminal Justice (2021).
Nicholas Tsagourias is Professor of International Law at the University of Sheffield. His teaching and research interests are in the fields of international law and the use of force, international humanitarian law, international criminal law, and cybersecurity. He is widely published in these fields. Among his recent publications are the edited collection Tsagourias and Buchan, Research Handbook on International Law and Cyberspace. 2nd revised and updated edition (Elgar, 2021) and the book Buchan and Tsagourias, Regulating the Use of Force: Stability and Change (Elgar, 2021).
Sean Watts is a Professor in the Department of Law, United States Military Academy at West Point. He co-directs the Lieber Institute for Law and Warfare. He is Co-Editor-in-Chief of the electronic forum Articles of War and co-General Editor of the Lieber Studies book series with Oxford University Press. He is a visiting Professor at University of Reading School of Law and a Senior Fellow with the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. He was the James L. Koley Professor of Constitutional Law at Creighton University Law School. He retired from the U.S. Army after 25 years of service on active and reserve duty as a military lawyer and Armor officer.
Thomas C. Wingfield is a Senior Defense and International Researcher at the RAND Corporation in Washington, DC. Previously, he served as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Cyber Policy from 2019 to 2021. Prior to that, Mr. Wingfield was the Dean and Acting Chancellor of the NDU College of Information and Cyberspace, the nation’s cyber and information war college. He holds a J.D. and an LL.M. from Georgetown University Law Center. A former Chair of the American Bar Association’s Committee on International Criminal Law, he is the author of THE LAW OF INFORMATION CONFLICT: NATIONAL SECURITY LAW IN CYBERSPACE and a contributor to the TALLINN MANUAL ON THE INTERNATIONAL LAW APPLICABLE TO CYBER WARFARE.
Marguerite Walter is an experienced practitioner of international law and has been teaching at the Georgetown University Law Center since 2011. While she teaches in her personal capacity, Ms. Walter is an Attorney-Adviser in the Office of the Legal Adviser at the U.S. Department of State, where she has advised on various matters of public international law, including international law relating to State conduct in cyberspace; the law of armed conflict; international human rights law; customary international law, including State responsibility under international law; international investment disputes; and negotiation of a variety of international instruments. She also has substantial experience in private practice involving international investment disputes, having handled numerous matters in different arbitral institutions under a range of rules.
TJ White is a 30-plus year national security practitioner, strategist, and cyber operations expert leading joint military formations and combined intelligence community organizations. He has commanded at all levels within the Navy and Joint Service, most recently as the Commander, United States Fleet Cyber Command / United States TENTH Fleet / United States Navy Space Command and previously as the Commander, United States Cyber National Mission Force / USCYBERCOM. He is a former Director of Intelligence for United States Indo-Pacific Command and has served globally in various combat zones and conflict areas supporting competition dynamics. A former CINCPACFLT Shiphandler-of-the-Year, he misses his days driving a Battleship. He is a 1987 graduate of the United States Naval Academy and holds additional diplomas from the Naval Postgraduate School, Naval War College, National Defense University and myriad professional education institutions. As a cyber planner, practitioner, operator, strategist, and leader I have been on the tail-end of acquisition, implementation, rollout (training, sustainment - lifecycle), organizational understanding, and Trust, Technology, Tactics, Tradecraft, and Procedure uptake. Across key national security sectors of defense, cyberspace, and space, we are in a race condition, no longer possessing the luxury of time, distance, and accepted international standards. Collective security and confident national resiliency will only be found in effective collaboration. My focus of effort remains risk assessment and consequence management with respect to cybersecurity, critical infrastructure, supply chain, technology policy, and trust relationships. I am committed to talent management because up-gunned organizations are made up of up-skilled people. OneNetworkConnection, LLC was created to assist individuals &amp; organizations understand the value and opportunity found in collective cybersecurity by leveraging technical acumen, expanded operational horizon, and trusted strategic vision to assess and manage current and future risk.
Danielle has had over 25 years of experience in various roles within the Singapore public sector, most recently (until July 2021) as the Deputy Director-General at the International Affairs Division of the Attorney-General’s Chambers (AGC/IAD), where she led the practice teams for international environment and climate change, trade and investment, and international security. She has provided legal and strategic advice across a range of complex public international law issues including trade and investment, international security, international cyber norms, environment and climate change, human rights, law of the sea, sanctions and compliance, and dispute resolution. This includes advice and representation at international negotiations and meetings, advice on and representation in dispute matters and engagement with non-governmental stakeholders on a range of issues. In particular, she led the legal team that advised and represented the Singapore Government in the international dialogue and negotiations on, among others, the development of international cyber norms at the UN Group of Government Experts and the Open Ended Working Group meetings. Danielle currently leads on climate change law and policy as well as cyber issues at the Centre for International Law, National University of Singapore (NUS). Together with the Columbia University School of International and Public Affairs and the RSiS Centre of Excellence for National Security, she co-convenes the US-ASEAN Cyber Dialogue, a platform that brings together policy makers, think tanks and corporate stakeholders from the US and ASEAN region. Danielle is concurrently Adjunct Senior Fellow at the Centre of Excellence for National Security, RSiS and Visiting Researcher at the Asia-Pacific Centre for Environmental Law, NUS. She is also an independent consultant and senior advisor, public affairs practice lead with a boutique consultancy.
Lixin Zhu, Professor, PhD, Director of Institute of Rule of Law in Cyber Security, Academy of Science and Education Development of Xi'an Jiao Tong University; Associate director of Information Security Law Institute, Suzhou Research Institute of XJTU, Vice President of Information Security Law Research Institute of Shaanxi Law Society.