Jonathan B. Baker
Professor of Law
Office: Room Y357
Jonathan B. Baker is Professor of Law at American University Washington College of Law, where he teaches courses primarily in the areas of antitrust and economic regulation. He served as the Chief Economist of the Federal Communications Commission from 2009 to 2011, and as the Director of the Bureau of Economics at the Federal Trade Commission from 1995 to 1998. Previously, he worked as a Senior Economist at the President’s Council of Economic Advisers, Special Assistant to the Deputy Assistant Attorney General for Economics in the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice, an Assistant Professor at Dartmouth's Amos Tuck School of Business Administration, an Attorney Advisor to the Acting Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission, and an antitrust lawyer in private practice. Professor Baker is the co-author of an antitrust casebook, a past Editorial Chair of Antitrust Law Journal, and a past member of the Council of the American Bar Association’s Section of Antitrust Law. He has published widely in the fields of antitrust law, policy, and economics. Professor Baker has received the Jerry S. Cohen Award for Antitrust Scholarship, American University’s Faculty Award for Outstanding Scholarship, Research, and Other Professional Accomplishments, and the Federal Trade Commission’s Award for Distinguished Service. He has a J.D. from Harvard and a Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University.
Areas of Specialization
- Antitrust and Economic Regulation
- Law and Economics
Degrees & Universities
- Ph.D., Stanford University 1986
- J.D., Harvard Law School 1982
- A.B., Harvard University 1977
- Jonathan Baker, Taking the Error Out of "Error Cost" Analysis: What's Wrong with Antitrust's Right, 80 Antitrust L.J. 1 (2015). SSRN Link
- Andrew I. Gavil, William E. Kovacic & Jonathan B. Baker, Antitrust Law in Perspective: Cases, Concepts and Problems in Competition Policy (Thomson West, 2d, Am. Casebook Series 2008).
- Jonathan Baker, Beyond Schumpeter Vs. Arrrow: How Antitrust Fosters Innovation, 74 Antitrust L.J. 575 (2007). SSRN Link
- Jonathan B. Baker, The Case for Antitrust Enforcement, 17 J. Econ. Persps. 27 (Fall 2003) (reprinted in Recent Developments in Monopoly and Competition Policy, 3-26, George Norman, ed. (Edward Elgar, 2008)). SSRN Link
- Jonathan B. Baker, Mavericks, Mergers, and Exclusion: Proving Coordinated Competitive Effects Under the Antitrust Laws, 77 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 135 (Apr. 2002) (reprinted in Economics of Antitrust Law, 470-538, Benjamin Klein & Andres V. Lerner, eds. (Edward Elgar, 2008)).
- Jonathan Baker, Overlapping Financial Investor Ownership, Market Power, and Antitrust Enforcement: My Qualified Agreement with Professor Elhauge,, 129 Har. L. Rev. 212 (2016). SSRN Link
- Jonathan Baker, Evaluating Appropriability Defenses for the Exclusionary Conduct of Dominant Firms in Innovative Industries, 80 Antitrust L.J. 431 (2016). SSRN Link
- Jonathan Baker, Exclusionary Conduct of Dominant Firms, R&D Competition, and Innovation, 48 Rev. Indus. Org. 269 (2016). SSRN Link
- Jonathan B. Baker & Steven C. Salop, Antitrust, Competition Policy and Inequality, 104 Geo. L. J. Online 1 (2015). SSRN Link
- Jonathan B. Baker, Channeling and Contending with Bill Kovacic, in William E. Kovacic - Liber Amicorum: An Antitrust Tribute, 1-9 (Nicolas Charbit et al., eds., Inst. of Compen. L. 2014).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Antitrust Enforcement and Sectoral Regulation: The Competition Policy Benefits of Concurrent Enforcement in the Communications Sector, 9 Competition Policy Intl. 4 (2013). SSRN Link
- Jonathan B. Baker, Exclusion as a Core Competition Concern, 78 Antitrust L.J. 527 (2013). SSRN Link
- Jonathan B. Baker, Economics and Politics: Perspectives on the Goals and Future of Antitrust, 81 Fordham L. Rev. 2175 (2013). SSRN Link
- Jonathan B. Baker & Judith A. Chevalier, The Competitive Consequences of Most-Favored-Nation Provisions, 27 Antitrust , 20 (2013). SSRN Link
- Jonathan B. Baker, Research Topics in Unilateral Effects Analysis, in Research Handbook on the Economics of Antitrust Law (Einer Elhague, ed., Edward Elgar Publg. 2013).
- Jonathan B. Baker & Carl Shapiro, Evaluating Merger Enforcement During the Obama Administration, 65 Stan. L. Rev. Online 28 (2012).
- Jonathan Baker, Merger Simulation in an Administrative Context, 77 Antitrust L.J. 451 (Spring 2011).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Mark Bykowsky, Patrick DeGraba, Paul LaFontaine, Eric Ralph & William Sharkey, The Year in Economics at the FCC, 2010-11: Protecting Competition Online, 39 Rev. Indus. Org. 297 (2011). SSRN Link
- Jonathan B. Baker, Comcast/NBCU: The FCC Provides a Roadmap for Vertical Merger Analysis, 25 Antitrust 36 (2011). SSRN Link
- Jonathan Baker, Detecting and Reversing the Decline in Horizontal Merger Enforcement, 22 Antitrust 29 (Summer 2008).
- Jonathan Baker, ’Dynamic Competition’ Does Not Excuse Monopolization, 4 Competition Pol. Intl. 243 (2008).
- Jonathan Baker, Merger to Monopoly to Serve a Single Buyer: Comment, 75 Antitrust L.J. 637 (2008).
- Jonathan Baker & Timothy F. Bresnahan, Economic Evidence in Antitrust: Defining Markets and Measuring Market Power, in Handbook of Antitrust Economics, 1-42 (Paolo Buccirossi, MIT Press 2008).
- Jonathan Baker & Carl Shapiro, Reinvigorating Horizontal Merger Enforcement, in How the Chicago School Overshot the Mark: The Effect of Conservative Economic Analysis on U.S. Antitrust, 235-288 (Robert Pitofsky, Oxford University Press 2008).
- Jonathan Baker & Robert Pitofsky, A Turning Point in Merger Enforcement: Federal Trade Commission v. Staples, in Antitrust Stories, 257-286 (Eleanor M. Fox & Daniel A. Craig, Foundation Press 2007).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Market Definition: An Analytical Overview, 74 Antitrust L.J. 129 (2007). SSRN Link
- Jonathan B. Baker, Competition Policy as a Political Bargain, 73 Antitrust L.J. 483 (2006). SSRN Link
- Orley Ashenfelter, David Ashmore, Jonathan B. Baker, Suzanne Gleason & Daniel S. Hosken, Empirical Methods in Merger Analysis: Econometric Analysis of Pricing in FTC v. Staples, 13 Intl. J. Econ. Bus. 265 (2006) (reprinted in Recent Developments in Monopoly and Competition Policy, 353-367, George Norman, ed. (Edward Elgar, 2008)).
- Jonathan B. Baker, My Summer Vacation at the European Commission, Antitrust Source (Sept. 2005).
- Orley Ashenfelter, David Ashmore, Jonathan B. Baker, Suzanne Gleason & Daniel S. Hosken, Econometric Methods in Staples, Princeton L. & Pub. Affairs Paper No. 04-007 (Apr. 9, 2004). SSRN Link
- Jonathan B. Baker, Efficiencies and High Concentration: Heinz Proposes to Acquire Beech-Nut, in The Antitrust Revolution 150, 150-69 (John E. Kwoka, Jr. & Lawrence J. White, eds., 4th ed., 2004).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Why Did the Antitrust Agencies Embrace Unilateral Effects?, 12 Geo. Mason U. L. Rev. 31 (Fall 2003).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Economist's Roundtable, 17 Antitrust 8 (Spring 2003).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Responding to Developments in Economics and the Courts: Entry in the Merger Guidelines, 71 Antitrust L.J. 189 (2003).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Competitive Price Discrimination: The Exercise of Market Power Without Anticompetitive Effects (Comment on Klein and Wiley), 70 Antitrust L.J. 643 (2003). SSRN Link
- Jonathan B. Baker, Horizontal Merger Analysis Grows Up: A Review of Chapter 5 of Richard Posner's "Antitrust Law" (2d ed. 2001), Antitrust Source (Jan. 2002).
- Jonathan B. Baker, A Preface to Post-Chicago Antitrust, in Post Chicago Developments in Antitrust Analysis 60 (Roger van der Bergh, Roberto Pardolesi & Antonio Cucinotta, eds., 2002). SSRN Link
- Jonathan B. Baker, Can Antitrust Keep Up? Competition Policy in High-Tech Markets, Brookings Rev. 16 (Winter 2001).
- Jonathan B. Baker & Andrew I. Gavil, Ill-Gotten Gains: Toothless Settlement Lets Microsoft Keep Rewards of Monopolization, Leg. Times 51 (Nov. 12, 2001).
- Jonathan B. Baker, New Horizons in Cartel Detection, 70 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 824 (Oct./Dec. 2001).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Should Concentration be Dropped from the Merger Guidelines?, ABA Antitrust Section Task Force Rep. 339 (July 2001) (reprinted in 33 U. W.L.A. L. Rev. 3 (2001) with Steven C. Salop).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Stepping Out in an Old Brown Shoe: In Qualified Praise of Submarkets, 68 Antitrust L.J. 203 (2000).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Policy Watch: Developments in Antitrust Economics, 13 J. Econ. Persps. 181 (Winter 1999). SSRN Link
- Jonathan B. Baker, Law Leans Toward Joel Klein, Leg. Times 40 (Oct. 25, 1999).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Promoting Innovation Competition Through the Aspen/Kodak Rule, 7 Geo. Mason U. L. Rev. 495 (Spring 1999). SSRN Link
- Jonathan B. Baker, Econometric Analysis in FTC v. Staples, 18 J. Pub. Policy & Mktg. 11 (Spring 1999).
- Jonathan B. Baker & Daniel Rubinfeld, Empirical Methods in Antitrust Litigation: Review and Critique, 1 Am L. & Econ. Rev. 386 (1999). SSRN Link
- Jonathan B. Baker & John C. Hilke, From Open Access to Convergence Mergers: An Antitrust Perspective on the Transition to Electricity Competition, 3 Power 3 (Winter 1998).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Orley Ashenfelter, David Ashmore & Signe-Mary McKernan, Identifying the Firm-Specific Cost Pass-Through Rate, Working Paper No. 217, Fed. Trade Commn. (Jan. 1998).
- Jonathan B. Baker, The Problem with Baker Hughes and Syufy: On the Role of Entry in Merger Analysis, 65 Antitrust L.J. 353 (Winter 1997).
- Jonathan B. Baker, "Continuous" Regulatory Reform at the Federal Trade Commission, 49 Admin L. Rev. 859 (Fall 1997).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Contemporary Empirical Merger Analysis, 5 Geo. Mason U. L. Rev. 347 (Spring 1997).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Product Differentiation Through Space and Time: Some Antitrust Policy Issues, 42 Antitrust Bull. 177 (Spring 1997).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Unilateral Competitive Effects Theories in Merger Analysis, 11:2 Antitrust 21 (Spring 1997).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Identifying Horizontal Price Fixing in the Electronic Marketplace, 65 Antitrust L.J. 41 (Fall 1996).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Vertical Restraints with Horizontal Consequences: Competitive Effects of "Most-Favored-Customer" Clauses, 64 Antitrust L.J. 517 (Spring 1996).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Fringe Firms and Incentives to Innovate, 63 Antitrust L.J. 621 (Winter 1995).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Predatory Pricing After Brooke Group: An Economic Perspective, 62 Antitrust L.J. 585 (Spring 1994) (reprinted in An Antitrust Anthology, Andrew Gavil, ed., (1996)).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Two Sherman Act Section I Dilemmas: Parrallel Pricing, the Oligopoly Problem, and Contemporary Economic Theory, 38 Antitrust Bull. 143 (Spring 1993).
- Jonathan B. Baker & Timothy F. Bresnahan, Empirical Methods of Identifying and Measuring Market Power, 61 Antitrust L.J. 3 (Summer 1992) (reprinted in Economics of Antitrust Law, 117-130, Benjamin Klein & Andres V. Lerner, eds. (Edward Elgar, 2008)).
- Janusz A. Ordover & Jonathan B. Baker, Entry Analysis Under the 1992 Horizontal Merger Guidelines, 61 Antitrust L.J. 139 (Summer 1992).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Per Se Rules in the Antitrust Analysis of Horizontal Restraints, 36 Antitrust Bull. 733 (Winter 1991).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Book Review: Economics and Anitrust Policy, 34 Antitrust Bull. 919 (Winter 1989).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Identifying Cartel Policing Under Uncertainty: The U.S. Steel Industry 1933-1939, 32:2, pt.2 J. L. & Econ. S47 (Oct. 1989).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Recent Developments in Economics that Challenge Chicago School Views, 58 Antitrust L.J. 645 (1989).
- Jonathan B. Baker, The Antitrust Analysis of Hospital Mergers and the Transformation of the Hospital Industry, 51:2 L. & Contemp. Probs. 93 (Spring 1988).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Vertical Restraints Among Hospitals, Physicians, and Health Insurers that Raise Rivals' Costs, 14 Am. J.L. & Med. 385 (1988).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Private Information and the Deterrent Effect of Antitrust Damage Remedies, 4 J. L. Econ. & Org. 385 (1988).
- Jonathan B. Baker & Timothy F. Bresnahan, Estimating the Residual Demand Curve Facing a Single Firm, 6 Intl. J. Indus. Org. 283 (1988) (reprinted in Antitrust and Competition Policy, Andrew N. Kleit, ed., 2005).
- Jonathan B. Baker & Timothy F. Bresnahan, The Gains from Merger or Collusion in Product Differentiated Industries, 33 J. Indus. Econ. 427 (1985) (reprinted in "Oligopoly, Competition and Welfare," P. Geroski, L. Philips & A. Ulph, eds., 1985).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Has the Contract Clause Counter-Revolution Halted? Rhetoric, Rights and Markets in Constitutional Analysis, 12 Hastings Const. L.Q. 71 (Fall 1984).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Presentation, Comments On Applying the Horizontal Merger Guidelines (Mar. 2004).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Panelist, Economists and Lawyers' Roundtable (DOJ/FTC Merger Workshop, Feb. 19, 2004).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Panelist, Panel on Coordinated Effects (DOJ/FTC Merger Workshop, Feb. 18, 2004).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Roundtable Discussion, Roundtable with Former Diretors of the FTC Bureau of Economics (Sept. 4, 2003).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Panelist, Most Favored Nations Clauses (DOJ/FTC Hearings on Health Care and Competition Law and Policy, May 7, 2003).
- Jonathan B. Baker, On-Line Chat, US v. Microsoft Corporation (Feb. 26, 2001) (C-Span On-Line Chat, Town Hall Meeting).
- Jonathan B. Baker, Symposium, The Microsoft Verdict: The Next Phase (American Prospect Online, Apr. 6, 2000).