International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: Chronology
13 December 2004: In the Ntakirutimana case, the Appeals Chamber delivers its judgment. Regarding Elizaphan Ntakirutimana’s responsibility under the Bisesero Indictment, the Chamber affirms in part his conviction for aiding and abetting genocide and reverses his acquittal for extermination as a crime against humanity. With regard to the Mugonero Indictment, the Appeals Chamber overturns his conviction for aiding and abetting genocide. Elizaphan's 10-year sentence is affirmed. Regarding Gerard Ntakirutimana’s responsibility under the Mugonero Indictment, the Chamber affirms his conviction for genocide with regard to his killing of Charles Ukobizaba, and enters an additional conviction for aiding and abetting genocide with regard to his procurement of gendarmes and ammunition for the attack. Gerard's conviction for murder as a crime against humanity is affirmed, and an additional conviction for aiding and abetting extermination as a crime against humanity is entered. With regard to the Bisesero Indictment, the Appeal Chamber finds that Gerard’s responsibility for genocide is that of an aider and abetter and not that of a principle perpetrator, reverses his conviction for murder as a crime against humanity, and enters a conviction for aiding and abetting extermination as a crime against humanity. Gerard's 25-year sentence is affirmed.
8 December 2004: Vincent Rutaganira pleads guilty to one count of crimes against humanity (extermination) as part of a plea agreement. The prosecution requests the dismissal of the other 24 charges in the indictment, which included multiple counts of genocide, crimes against humanity (murder, other inhumane acts), and violations of Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and of Additional Protocol II. As part of the plea agreement, Rutaganira admits that during the genocide he took no action to protect Tutsi refugees in a commune where he was a government official. He says that by pleading guilty he hopes to set an example that will encourage others to tell the truth and acknowledge their responsibility for the genocide.
22 November 2004: In his initial appearance at the ICTR, Ephrem Setako pleads not guilty to six counts: genocide, complicity in genocide, crimes against humanity (murder, extermination) and violations of Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and of Additional Protocol II (violence to life, health and physical well-being; pillage).
18 November 2004: Ephrem Setako is transferred to the ICTR from the Netherlands, where he was arrested on February 25, 2004. Setako, a former officer in the Rwandan Armed Forces, is alleged to have planned, instigated, ordered and participated in killings of Tutsi civilians, and to have distributed arms to persons participating in the 1994 genocide.
9 November 2004: ICTR turns down a request from Rwandan national prosecutors to question Tribunal staff regarding the murder of Tribunal witness Bosco Nyemazi. Two Tribunal staff members visited Nyemazi the day before the killing, and the person who led the staff to Nyemazi is a murder suspect. The denial of the request draws criticism from high-level Rwandan officials.
9 November 2004: In the Butare case, the ICTR trial concludes.
3 November 2004: In the Kabiligi case, the ICTR Registrar dismisses Togolese lawyer Jean Yaovi Degli, lead counsel for Brigadier Gratien Kabiligi, on charges of embezzling 300,000 US dollars.
3 November 2004: In the Media case, the Appeals Chamber orders the Registrar to appoint counsel for Jean-Bosco Barayagwiza by 10 November 2004. The appeals proceedings in this case have been stayed since 19 May 2004 due to the withdrawal of Barayagwiza's counsel.
31 October 2004: In the Government case, the trial of Rwandan government ministers, the Tribunal goes into early recess.
22 October 2004: In the Karemera et al. case, the Appeals Chamber holds that customary international law recognized the application of the mode of liability of joint criminal enterprise to the crime of genocide before 1992, and that consequently the ICTR has subject matter jurisdiction to try Rwamakuba on this charge.
22 October 2004: In the Military I case, the Prosecution rests its case against four former military commanders charged with genocide, crimes against humanity and serious violations of Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocol II. The defense is scheduled to commence on 12 January 2005.
22 October 2004: In the Butare case, the prosecution rests. The defense will commence on 31 January 2005.
21 October 2004: In the Military II case, trial is adjourned until January 2005 due to changes in defense counsel.
14 October 2004: Bosco Nyemazi, a prosecution witness who gave evidence at the ICTR against Colonel Aloys Simba, is assassinated upon his return to Rwanda.
27 September 2004: In the Seromba case, the trial begins with all parties present for the first time since the trial began on September 20, 2004. Seromba had refused to attend the first three days of his trial in solidarity with other defendants protesting the possible transfer of some cases to Rwanda.
25 September 2004: The boycott by ICTR detainees to protest the possible relocation of some trials to Rwanda ends following an announcement by Tribunal President Erik Mose that no official decisions have been made regarding the transfer of either convicted persons or trials to Rwanda.
23 September 2004: In the Military II case, the former Rwandan army chief-of-staff and former chief of the Gendarmerie end a three-day boycott of proceedings in protest over the Tribunal's alleged lack of impartiality. The defendants had earlier informed the Tribunal that they would not appear if the prosecutor did not indict members of the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF) for war crimes.
22 September 2004: The Rwandan government and the ICTR finalize modalities for the transfer of some convicts to Rwanda to serve their sentences in that country. Rwandan officials hope that they will soon receive approval from the U.N. Secretary-General to make Rwanda the sixth country to enforce ICTR sentences.
21 September 2004: In the Seromba case, presiding Judge Andresia Vaz (Senegal) orders the defense to continue to represent Father Athanese Seromba, despite his instructions to participate in a boycott of Tribunal proceedings.
20 September 2004: In the Seromba case, the trial opens without the defendant. Seromba and 43 other ICTR detainees are boycotting Tribunal proceedings for three days to protest the arrival of a Rwandan delegation at the ICTR for talks on the possible transfer of convicted persons to Rwanda.
16 September 2004: ICTR President Judge Erik Mose (Norway) warns that inadequate funding could prevent the tribunal from meeting the 2008 target for completion of trials set by the UN Security Council.
14 September 2004: In the Butare case, the trial resumes after a six-week break. The prosecution expects to finish its case by the end of the month.
13 August 2004: ICTR Chief Prosecutor Hassan Jallow announces that at least 40 cases involving both ICTR indictess currently in custody and some still at large will be transferred to Rwandan national courts in early 2005. Also, some individuals convicted by the ICTR will be transferred to Rwandan prisons to begin serving their sentences sometime next year.
3 August 2004: The UN Secretary-General appoints Sri Lankan Judge Joseph Asoka Nihal de Silva as a permanent judge of the ICTR to replace Judge Asoka de Zoysa Gunawardana, also of Sri Lanka, who resigned due to health reasons. De Silva's term will expire in 2007.
30 July 2004: Belgium has arrested and will try Ephrem Nkezabera, a senior member of the Interahamwe. Nkezabera has not yet been indicted by the ICTR, and the ICTR prosecutor's office requested Belgium prosecute him.
22 July 2004: In the Kanyarukiga case, Gaspard Kanyarukiga pleads not guilty to all four counts of his indictment: genocide, conspiracy to commit genocide, complicity in genocide and one count of crimes against humanity (extermination).
19 July 2004: Gaspard Kanyarukiga is transferred to ICTR detention in Arusha, Tanzania. Kanyarukiga was arrested in South Africa earlier in the week. He was indicted in 2001 for genocide, conspiracy to commit genocide, complicity in genocide and one count of crimes against humanity (extermination) and has been on the run ever since.
15 July 2004: In the Ndindabahizi case, former Rwandan Finance Minister Emmanuel Ndindabahizi is found guilty of genocide and two counts of crimes against humanity (extermination and murder) and sentenced to life in prison.
14 July 2004: In the Butare case, the trial is adjourned until 6 September.
9 July 2004: In the Niyitegeka case, the Appeals Chamber dismisses the appeal of former Rwandan Information Minister Eliezer Niyitegeka and upholds his sentence of life imprisonment. Niyitegeka was convicted of genocide, conspiracy to commit genocide, incitement to commit genocide, and three counts of crimes against humanity (murder, extermination and inhumane acts) in May 2003.
29 June 2004: ICTR President Judge Eric M�se and Chief Prosecutor Hassan Jallow present their official reports to the UN Security Council. Both say that the ICTR is on schedule to finish all trials by the 2008 deadline required by Security Council Resolution 1503. However, they say completion could be jeopardized due to 15 suspects still at large and a lack of funds. Jallow outlines his plan to focus on only those most responsible for the atrocities committed in Rwanda and to transfer lower-level cases to domestic jurisdictions, including Rwanda. To date, judgments against 22 defendants have been rendered; by the end of 2004, cases involving 48 defendants will have been completed or be in progress.
23 June 2004: Judge Dennis Byron (St. Kitts & Nevis) is sworn in as a permanent judge at the ICTR.
17 June 2004: In the Gacumbitsi case, the Trial Chamber finds Sylvestre Gacumbitsi guilty of genocide and two counts of crimes against humanity (extermination and rape). The former mayor is acquitted of complicity to commit genocide and murder as a crime against humanity. He is sentenced to 30 years in prison.
26 May 2004: 46 prisoners being held in ICTR detention send a letter to the ICTR President Eric M�se opposing any attempt to have them serve their time in Rwanda should they be convicted. This comes as UN officials are in Rwanda to assess the standards of Rwandan prisons and to discuss the possibility of transferring convicted persons there. Defense attorneys at the ICTR also condemn the idea, saying that members of the Rwandan Government are also suspected of atrocities. Rwanda has recently stepped its lobbying to have some of those found guilty at the ICTR serve their time in Rwanda.
18 May 2004: Rwanda's representative at the ICTR demands an explanation from the Tribunal following the resignation of two judges and a withdrawal of a third from an ongoing case in the last two months. The Rwandan official suggested that the departures were due to compromising pressure being exerted on top ICTR officials from foreign governments. In response, the ICTR notes that Judge Vaz withdrew from the case following allegations of bias by the Defense and did so to remove any possible doubt regarding the integrity of the proceedings. The Defense had made five separate motions to have Judge Vaz removed, three of which asked for the removal of all three judges hearing the case. The Tribunal's spokesperson also reiterates that the two judges who had resigned did so citing "health" and "personal" reasons for their respective departures.
17 May 2004: The Government I case is put on hold as Presiding Judge Andresia Vaz (Senegal) withdraws from the case. No reason for her withdrawal has yet been given. Judge Vaz, who is also Vice President of the Tribunal, was the only permanent judge sitting on the case. The other judges hearing the case are ad litem judges. Defense attorneys are hinting that they may petition for a retrial.
13 May 2004: In the Simba case, a dispute over documents delays the start of the trial. The Defense claims that the Prosecution has failed to disclose some important documents to the Defense. The judge has ordered both sides to work out the dispute quickly as trial cannot be delayed indefinitely. No new date has been set for the trial.
13 May 2004: In the Munyakazi case, Yusufu Munakazi pleads not guilty to one count of genocide, or alternatively complicity in genocide, and one count of crimes against humanity (extermination).
10 May 2004: The ICTR announces that the European Union will provide 1.5 million Euros to fund projects aimed at strengthening the managerial and operational capacity of the Tribunal. The money will fund eight projects related to assistance and protection of witnesses and victims, improvement of information management and security, outreach to ordinary Rwandans to increase awareness of the ICTR, and capacity building for staff and interns.
7 May 2004: Yusufu Munyakazi is transferred to ICTR detention. He was arrested earlier this week in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
5 May 2004: ICTY fugitive Yusufu Munyakazi is arrested in the Democratic Republic of Congo. He will soon be transferred to the Tribunal. Munyakazi was a prominent leader of the Interahamwe militia and a leading businessman who has been cited many times as being one of the ringleaders of the Cyangugu massacre in southwest Rwanda. Considered to be one of the ICTR's most-wanted, the United States was offering $5 million for information leading to his arrest.
4 May 2004: The Government II trial is delayed following the resignation of Presiding Judge, Asoka de Zoyza Gunawardana (Sri Lanka), last week. Judge Gunawardana apparently cited "health reasons" for his departure. His resignation comes less than one month after fellow ICTR judge Lloyd Willliams (St. Kitts & Nevis) announced his resignation.
29 April 2004: The Rwandan Government criticizes the ICTR for not handing over Tribunal convicts to serve time in Rwanda. According to the ICTR Statute, prison terms should be "served in Rwanda or any state which has indicated their willingness to the UN Security Council." So far, the ICTR has convicted 18 people. Six are serving time in Mali. The rest remain in ICTR detention awaiting transfer to other countries. Rwanda says it is being denied its statutory right to house the prisoners. Six other countries�Mali, Swaziland, Benin, Italy, France and Sweden-have signed agreements with the ICTR to house prisoners.
29 April 2004: The ICTR announces that it is in talks with some countries aimed at resettling the two men who were acquitted by the Tribunal in February. Former Transport and Communications Minister Andr� Ntagerura and the former Prefect of Cyangugu Emmanuel Bagambiki are no longer in detention and are being housed by the Tribunal at an undisclosed location. An ICTR spokesman says it hopes to have a "favorable response" soon from some countries. One of the Defense attorneys criticizes the Tribunal for being too slow in this process.
27 April 2004: Sweden signs an agreement with the ICTR, becoming the sixth state to agree to enforce the sentences of those convicted by the Tribunal. The other states that have agreed to imprison ICTR convicts are Mali, Benin, Swaziland, France and Italy.
24 April 2004: The Tribunal wraps-up a two-day plenary session. During the session, several amendments to the Rules of Evidence and Procedure were adopted. Among the key issues discussed were standards and procedures in connection with the amendment of indictments, tele- and video-conferencing during Status Conferences, the Prosecution's obligation to disclose exculpatory material to the Defense, and the possibility of transferring cases to national jurisdictions.
22 April 2004: In the Niyitegeka appeal, the Prosecution defends the conviction of former Rwandan Information Minister Eliezier Niyitegeka saying that case against him was very strong. Prosecutors maintain that the Trial Chamber tested the evidence and found it reliable. Niyitegeka was convicted on six counts of genocide and crimes against humanity on 15 May 2003 and sentenced to life in prison.
21 April 2004: The Association of Defense Lawyers (ADAD) at the ICTR presents its new committee. Hamuli Rety (France) is named President of the association, while Nicole Bergevin (Canada) is named Vice-President and Jean Degli (France) is named Secretary General. During the announcement ceremony, Tribunal President Eric M�se announces that the ADAD can now take part in Plenary Sessions at the Tribunal.
21 April 2004: In the Niyitegeka appeal, the Defense argues that former Rwandan Information Minister Eliezier Niyitegeka was convicted by the Trial Chamber on "mere allegations," not facts, and that the evidence was not corroborated. Niyitegeka was convicted of six counts of genocide and crimes against humanity on 15 May 2003 and sentenced to life in prison.
13 April 2004: In the Muhimana case, the trial is adjourned due to the ill health of the Accused. The Prosecution asked that the case continue despite Mikaeli Muhimana's absence because he was ably represented by two attorneys. The Defense countered claiming that Muhimana's presence was essential when cross-examining witnesses. The judges order the trial adjourned while Muhimana is examined by a physician.
8 April 2004: The UN Secretary-General appoints Sir Charles Michael Dennis Byron (St. Kitts & Nevis) as a permanent Judge at the ICTR. Judge Byron will replace Judge Lloyd George Williams (St. Kitts & Nevis) who resigned last month. He is due to serve out the remainder of Judge Williams's term, which ends 24 May 2007.
8 April 2004: The Association of Defence Lawyers (ADAD) demands that the mandate of the ICTR be extended to include crimes committed through 1997. The ADAD accuses the Office of the Prosecutor of discrimination, saying that so far, only Hutus have been prosecuted. The ADAD wants the mandate extended so that members of the RPF (Rwandese Patriotic Front, the mainly Tutsi former rebel group, which is now in power in Kigali) can be prosecuted for alleged crimes in Rwanda and refugee camps in the Democratic Republic of Congo following the genocide. The ADAD also demands that the OTP investigate the assassination of Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana, whose death sparked the genocide.
7 April 2004: The ICTR organizes a commemoration service to mark the 10th anniversary of the start of the Rwandan genocide.
2 April 2004: Fire breaks out at the ICTR, damaging an empty holding cell and some document storage. According to Tribunal officials, "only office documents and minor equipment was destroyed." The evidence section, which is fireproof, was not affected. UN and Tanzanian officials are investigating the cause of the fire.
31 March 2004: The Butare trial is adjourned until Monday, April 5, due to the late arrival of the prosecution witness scheduled to testify.
29 March 2004: The Government I trial resumes with the four defendants boycotting the proceedings for a second time. In February 2004, the four-Mathieu Ngirumpatse, Edouard Karemera, Joseph Nzirorera, and Andr� Rwamakuba-refused to attend proceedings or enter pleas to an amended indictment until the judges responded to a letter they had written to the Chamber. The Tribunal says it will not respond to a letter that is "almost contemptuous." Proceedings continued without the defendants present.
29 March 2004: The Muhimana trial begins. Mikaeli Muhimana, a former councilor of Gishyita sector in Kibuye Province, is charged with four counts: genocide, complicity in genocide, and crimes against humanity (rape and murder). Muhimana plead not guilty to all counts during his initial appearance before the Tribunal on 30 January 2004. Among the massacres Muhimana is accused of involvement in is the attack on the Mugonero complex. In February, the Tribunal convicted Elizaphan and Gerald Ntakirutimana for crimes related to the same attack.
26 March 2004: U.S. Department of State announces that the United States intends to ensure the continued operation of the ICTR until fugitive Felicien Kabuga is tried, despite increasing pressure that the ICTR conclude its work by 2010. The ICTR cannot close its doors without the consent of the UN Security Council, on which the US has veto power. Kabuga, an influential Rwandan businessman, is the ICTR's most wanted fugitive for allegedly financing much of the genocide. The announcement follows the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1534 calling on all states to intensify their cooperation with the in apprehending ICTR fugitives.
25 March 2004: Judge George Lloyd Williams (St. Kitts and Nevis) resigns from the ICTR for "personal reasons." Judge Williams is not currently sitting on a trial.
25 March 2004: The Government II trial is adjourned until May 4.
23 March 2004: Judge Emile Francis Short of Ghana is sworn in as an ad litem judge. He becomes the fifth ad litem judge sworn in at the ICTR since the UN Security Council nominated 18 ad litem judges in June 2003 to help the ICTR expedite its work.
17 March 2004: Italy signs an agreement with the ICTR becoming the fifth country to formally agree to house those convicted by the Tribunal. Mali, Benin, Swaziland, and France also have agreements to imprison ICTR convicts.
17 March 2004: In the Simba case, retired Col. Aloy Simba pleads not guilty to charges of genocide, complicity in genocide, and two counts of crimes against humanity (murder and extermination).
12 March 2004: In the Government II case, trial is adjourned for a second time in a week due to lack of witnesses.
10 March 2004: In the Government II case, trial is adjourned due to lack of witnesses.
8 March 2004: In the Bikindi case, well known Rwandan musician Simon Bikindi pleads not guilty to all charges in an amended indictment. Among other things, Bikindi is accused of using his music to incite hatred of and violence against Hutus. He is charged with genocide, conspiracy to commit genocide, direct and public incitement to commit genocide, complicity in genocide, and two counts of crimes against humanity (murder and persecution). Bikindi originally plead not guilty to similar charges in April 2002.
2 March 2004: In the Ndindabahizi case, the Defense ends its closing arguments by asking the Tribunal to acquit Emmanuel Ndindabahizi. Attorneys for the accused claim that the witnesses against the Accused were not credible and that the Prosecution failed to touch on nearly two-thirds of the indictment. Ndindabahizi maintains that he is innocent and that he is the victim of malicious prosecution due to a falling out he had with investigators in 1998.
1 March 2004: In the Ndindabahizi case, the Prosecution concludes its closing arguments asking that the Tribunal sentence Emmanuel Ndindabahizi to life in prison. Ndindabahizi is charged with genocide and crimes against humanity (extermination and murder).
1 March 2004: In the Gacumbitsi case, closing arguments end with the Defense team asking the Tribunal to acquit the Accused. They say the indictment against Sylvestre Gacumbitsi is a vague patchwork of unrelated accusations not supported by the witnesses. Earlier in the day, the Prosecution finished its closing arguments by requesting that the former mayor receive life in prison. Gacumbitsi is charged with genocide, complicity in genocide, and three counts of crimes against humanity (extermination, murder, rape).
27 February 2004: In the Military I case, the trial is adjourned until March 29.
26 February 2004: The Office of the Prosecutor at the ICTR confirms that former Rwanda military officer Lt. Ephrem Setako was arrested at a center for asylum seekers in the Netherlands. A Prosecution official says they are "in the process of finalizing his indictment" and that he will be transferred to Arusha soon. Setako is one of the shareholders in the radio station RTLM, which was accused of inciting people to commit genocide. The station's founders Jean-Bosco Barayagwiza and Ferdinand Nahimana were convicted of genocide and incitement to commit genocide, among other charges, in December 2003.
26 February 2004: In the Cyangugu case, Andr� Ntagerura and Emmanuel Bagambiki are conditionally released from ICTR detention. The two were acquitted yesterday of all charges including genocide and crimes against humanity. As the Prosecution is appealing their acquittal, the two must register with and report regularly to police in their country of residence until the Appeals Chamber rules on the case. Both men will also have to surrender their travel documents once they reach home and will not be able to travel abroad without the permission of the ICTR.
25 February 2004: In the Cyangugu case, the Tribunal acquits two of the accused and sentences the third to 27 years in prison. The judges found Samuel Inanishimwe, former military commander of the Rwanda armed forces, guilty on six counts: one count of genocide, four counts of crimes against humanity (extermination, murder, torture, imprisonment), and one count of serious violations of Common Article 3 of the Geneva Convention. The Tribunal acquitts Andr� Ntagerura, former Minister of Transport and Communications, and Emmanuel Bagambiki, former Prefect of the Cyangugu region, of similar charges. Inanishimwe's legal team says it will appeal the conviction. The Prosecution promises to appeal the acquittal of Ntagerura and Bagambiki.
23 February 2004: In the Government I trial, four former Rwandan Ministers boycott a second initial appearance hearing resulting from an amended indictment. The new indictment sets out seven similar counts for each of the accused including genocide, conspiracy to commit genocide and crimes against humanity, including rape and extermination. Their defense counsels enter pleas of not guilty to the charges in the amended indictment on behalf of the four: Edouard Karemera, Mathieu Ngirumpatse, Joseph Nzirorera, and Andr� Rwamakuba.
20 February 2004: The Government II trial is suspended today due to the illness of one of the accused, former Rwandan Minister of Health Casimir Bizimungu.
19 February 2004: An ICTR spokesperson confirms that the Tribunal is making plans for an eventual transfer of cases to interested national jurisdictions. He said that a six-person panel was created at the ICTR in December to study the issue, but stressed that no decisions on specific cases have yet been made. One criterion that has already been established for the transfer of cases is that the country applying for jurisdiction over the case cannot have a death penalty provision in its legal code.
11 February 2004: The Military II trial is adjourned after a second judge falls ill. Judge Jai Ram Reddy (Fiji) was too ill to appear in court today. Yesterday, Judge Serguei Aleckseievich Egorov (Russia) also fell ill and has yet to return. According to ICTR rules, a trial may continue up to five days with a two-judge panel if a third judge is absent due to ill health. However, with the illness of the second judge, the trial is adjourned.
10 February 2004: The Government II trial adjourns due to lack of witnesses. It is expected to resume on Friday, 10 February when the Prosecution is expected to bring more witnesses from Rwanda.
6 February 2004: The Rwandan Government's outgoing representative to the ICTR announces that his country will stop bringing witnesses to the ICTR if the defense counsel's strike goes forward again. Martin Ngoga said his concern arises from the fact that the strike has only been suspended, not resolved. If the strike were to resume, Rwanda would refuse to send witnesses to the Tribunal, fearing long delays and waits for witnesses housed in ICTR safe-houses. He called on the Tribunal and the attorneys to solve their differences amicably.
30 January 2004: In the Muhimana case, a former Rwandan provincial official, Mikaelii Muhimana pleads not guilty to an amended indictment charging him with genocide, complicity to commit genocide, and two counts of crimes against humanity (rape, murder).
30 January 2004: The strike initiated by defense counsel ends. The Tribunal promises to look into the defense attorneys' complaints.
28 January 2004: Defense lawyers at the ICTR go on strike in protest of alleged bias in favor of the Prosecution. Some defense attorneys claim that defense teams are not given enough money to conduct their cases and that a fair trial for their clients is "impossible." The strike is expected to last three days and cause the postponement of the three trials.
26 January 2004: Canada may take over the prosecution of some cases from the ICTR, according to media reports in Canada. The reports quote senior ICTR sources as saying that Canada may be asked to take some cases that cannot conceivably be finished before the 2008 deadline set for completion of cases at the Tribunal.
23 January 2004: Chief Prosecutor Hassan Jallow announces that it may not be possible for the ICTR to finish all of its cases by the 2008 deadline. Jallow says the ICTR will focus on a group of key figures who should be tried at the ICTR first. He says the Tribunal is considering the option of transferring other cases to other national or international courts.
22 January 2004: The former head of a United Nations peacekeeping force in Rwanda, retired Lt. Gen. Romeo Dallaire (Canada), begins testifying in the Military I case. He accuses former Rwandan Ministry of Defense official Colonel Theoneste Bagosora of being the "mastermind" of the Rwandan genocide, saying he even "overshadowed higher-ranking officers." Bagosora is being tried jointly with three other former Rwandan military officials: Briadier Gratien Kabiligi, Lt. Col. Anatole Nsengiyumva, and Major Aloys Ntabakuze.
22 January 2004: In the Kamuhanda case, former Rwandan Minister for Higher Education, Jean de Dieu Kamuhanda, is sentenced to life in prison. The Tribunal found him guilty of genocide and one count of crimes against humanity (extermination).