Elective Seminars

LAW-700 Seminar: Administrative Law and Regulations (2-3 hrs. hrs.) Selected problems of administrative law, covering both regulations and programs administered by various federal agencies. Vaughn, Nelson, Popper (Spring)

LAW-701 Seminar: Advanced Issues in Criminal Law (2-3 hrs. hrs.) An in-depth analysis of selected problems associated with the law of crimes. Robbins, Grohovsky

LAW-702 Seminar: Death Penalty (2 hrs. hrs.) The moral, ethical, and legal development of the death penalty within the constitutional framework; the death penalty trial and its unique legal and tactical considerations; and the postconviction process with an emphasis on federal and state comity considerations. Also includes international and comparative law dimensions of the application of capital punishment. (Spring)

LAW-704 Business Planning (3 hrs. hrs.) Covers the substance and practical applications of such areas of law as business associations, taxation, and securities regulation. Students will consider issues faced by business lawyers, including ethical and other professional responsibility concerns, in advising clients in the formation, financing, operation, and ultimate disposition of business entities. Particular attention will be given to the tax aspects of choice of entity, financing, and operational issues. Prerequisite(s): Prerequisite: Business Associations (LAW-611). Recommended: a tax course (LAW-647 or LAW-639 or LAW-644) and Securities Regulation (LAW-612). Eule (Fall, Spring)

LAW-705 Seminar: Advanced Civil Rights (2-3 hrs. hrs.) An analysis of contemporary constitutional problems in areas of civil rights and liberties. Prerequisite(s): Prerequisite: Constitutional Law (LAW-503). Schwartz, Lopez (Fall)

LAW-706 Seminar: Advanced Civil Procedure - Complex Litigation (2 hrs. hrs.) Using statutes and the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure as tools in civil litigation. Topics covered include strategy, purposes, and tactics of class action litigation; shareholder derivative suits; injunctions, temporary restraining orders, and stays; appealable orders, interlocutory appeals under 28 U.S.C. Section 1292 (b), writs of mandamus and prohibition; civil motions practice; judicial panel on multidistrict litigation; and award of attorneys' fees to prevailing parties by statute, from a common fund or under Common Benefit Doctrine. Karl (Fall)

LAW-707 Seminar: Advanced Constitutional Law (2-3 hrs. hrs.) Selected problems in constitutional law. Includes consideration of major recent decisions, as well as debates about modern constitutional theory. Hutchinson, Raskin, Schwartz, Ahranjani, Wermiel, Shiffman, Kaplan, Kwong (Fall, Spring)

LAW-708 Seminar: Advanced Criminal Procedure (2 hrs. hrs.) Examines the historical development and practical impact of race and politics on the criminal justice system from initial street encounters with the police to the imposition of the death penalty. Selected case profiles, in-depth documentaries, and other materials are used to explore the problems of wrongful convictions and other miscarriages of justice. Students discuss and evaluate a variety of legislative and judicial reforms designed to eliminate and remedy the problems of racism in the criminal justice system. Davis, Jones (Fall, Spring)

LAW-710 Environmental Issues in Business Transactions (2 hrs. hrs.) Explores the real-world environmental problems that practitioners encounter in counseling clients pursuing transactions in the corporate, real estate, banking, and bankruptcy contexts. Prerequisite(s): Prerequisites: Environmental Law (LAW-629) and Business Associations (LAW-611). P. Wallace

LAW-711 Seminar: Mergers and Acquisitions (3 hrs. hrs.) The application of the federal securities laws and state corporation laws to takeovers of corporations, mergers, tender offers, proxy contests, and open market and privately negotiated acquisitions of corporate control. Also includes an examination of the Williams Act and cases thereunder relating to third-party acquisitions of control; issuer repurchase programs; issuer tender offers; going private transactions; and fiduciary duties of incumbent management during takeovers. Current trends and techniques in takeover practice are emphasized. Prerequisite(s): Prerequisites: Business Associations (LAW-611) and Securities Regulation (LAW-612). Connolly, Haynes (Fall, Spring)

LAW-712 Human Rights Litigation Clinical Seminar (2-5 hrs. hrs.) Provides students with the opportunity to participate in litigation involving myriad issues of law that synthesize and build on first-year doctrinal courses and require creative analysis and complex research. Work centers on several pro bono human rights cases, and students will draw upon torts, contracts, property, constitutional law, evidence, international law, civil procedure, federal courts, and criminal law, among other areas. Instructor permission required. Tigar (Fall, Spring)

LAW-713 Seminar: Political Crime and Terrorism (2 hrs. hrs.) Political crimes and terrorism, including treason, sedition, espionage, political dissent, civil disobedience, draft resistance, and political struggles of Native Americans, labor, and women; sociopsychological profile of the political offender; causes of political crime; governmental measures for the suppression of political crime and subversion, including surveillance, wiretapping, deportation, extradition, outlawing of political parties, detention camps, loyalty oaths, and conspiracy trials; and comparative and international aspects of political crime and terrorism. Kittrie (Fall)

LAW-714 Seminar: Human Rights in Comparative Criminal Procedure (2 hrs. hrs.) Focuses on the criminal procedures of several exemplary countries, with particular emphasis on the human rights dimensions of operation of local systems. Considers the ways in which other legal systems or models deal with questions that are central to the criminal process: charging decisions, bail and pretrial release, plea bargaining or an analog for judicial efficiency in disposition of cases, the taking of evidence and other proof issues, jury trial or other forms of popular participation in fact-law resolution, sentencing and correctional processes, and appellate review. R. Wilson

LAW-715 Seminar: Disability and the Law (2-3 hrs. hrs.) Explores the ways in which the legal system deals (and has dealt) with people with disabilities in such areas as employment, education, housing, institutionalization, transportation, and health. Students look at historical and contemporary depictions of people with disabilities, case law, and statutes, including the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Fair Housing Act Amendments of 1988. Dinerstein (Spring)

LAW-716 Seminar: Environmental Litigation (2 hrs. hrs.) The procedural, substantive, and tactical considerations in environmental litigation. Roady, Lotterman (Fall)

LAW-717 Seminar: Advanced Evidence (3 hrs. hrs.) Continuation of the basic evidence course. Addresses the subjects of judicial notice and presumptions but the primary focus is on the subject of privileges, with particular emphasis on the attorney-client privilege. Prerequisite(s): Prerequisite: Evidence (LAW-633). Rice (Spring)

LAW-719 Seminar: Selected Topics in Health Law (2hrs. hrs.) Considers legal, ethical, and public policy problems posed by developments in health care financing, allocation, and delivery. Seminar topics include bioethics, fraud and abuse in the health care industry, federal reform of health policy, health care dispute resolution, health care transactions, managed care, medical liability, health law legislative and regulatory process, and public health law. Chavkin, Parver, Pavsner, Gertner, Farrell, Klepper, H.Saad

LAW-720A Seminar: Advanced Family Law Theory and Policy (2-3 hrs. hrs.) An interdisciplinary examination of selected topics in family law from both theoretical and policy perspectives, with an emphasis on race, class, and sexual orientation. Topics include legal responses to changing family structures and alternative methods of reproduction, state regulation of intimate human relationships, state intrusion into family life through the child abuse and neglect and welfare systems, and the effect of constitutional doctrine on the regulation of the family. Polikoff (Spring)

LAW-720B Seminar: Advanced Family Law Practice (2-3 hrs. hrs.) Provides an overview of the practice of family law with a substantive law emphasis on issues relating to child custody, spousal and child support, determination of property rights, and equitable distributions. Attention is also given to premarital agreements, marital settlement agreements, professional dealings with the client and opposing counsel, ethical considerations, tax, and other issues commonly involved in divorce cases. P. Sherman

LAW-721 Seminar: Law of the Sea (3 hrs. hrs.) Combines a traditional overview of the law of the sea with a focus on contemporary issues such as environmental preservation, fisheries management, public enjoyment, and resource exploitation. To achieve this balance, the course will explore a number of case studies, including the Spratley Island dispute involving China, Vietnam, Malaysia, and the Philippines; the Caspian Sea hydrocarbon dispute; and the Malaysian-Indonesian dispute recently submitted to the International Court of Justice. Particular emphasis will be placed on the interrelationship between international law and policy, noting how law shapes policy outcomes and how policy choices shape the development of law. P. Williams, Oliver, Orellana

LAW-723 Seminar: Current Issues of International Organizations (3 hrs. hrs.) Focuses on selected legal issues confronting international organizations, particularly the United Nations and regional agencies under Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter. Investigates a number of contemporary problems, including the rights and obligations of membership; privileges and immunities; peace and security questions (including the question of the use of force and of self-defense, dispute settlement methods, and enforcement techniques); the structural and procedural difficulties impeding the work of the United Nations; the work of the International Court of Justice and the role of international organizations regarding the protection of the rights of individuals. Orentlicher, Maksoud, Farrell

LAW-725A Seminar: International Protection of Human Rights (2-3 hrs. hrs.) Explores the interrelationships between U.S. and international law; contested or ambiguous moral values; and U.S. foreign policy ends, means, and processes as they affect efforts to defend and promote human rights. The course is designed to provide information on the substantive norms of human rights, the philosophic basis for the concept of rights and the leading points of controversy about the existence or character of certain rights that appear in conventional enumerations, the subtle and not-so-subtle ways in which ideological and material interests influence the definition and enforcement of rights, and the ways in which policy makers attempt to reconcile the demand for human rights enforcement with more traditional foreign policy objectives. C. Grossman, Martin, Rodriguez-Pinzon (Spring)

LAW-725B Seminar: Gender, Cultural Difference, and International Human Rights (3 hrs. hrs.) Examines the application of international law to religious and cultural practices that have an impact on women's rights. The course focuses on the personal status laws governing rights in the family, legal capacity, and inheritance in a number of countries. Students consider concepts of culture in international law and the scope of laws protecting the right to engage in religious and cultural practices; concepts of gender equality in international law; and feminist analyses of the ways in which gender, race, class, and other factors intersect with religion and culture to shape women's de jure and de facto rights, with an emphasis on analyses by women in developing countries and women of color in the United States. Students also look at concepts of cultural difference, race, and gender in approaches to the practice of female circumcision and the concept of moral consensus as a cultural construct underlying restrictions on lesbian and gay rights in the United States and Europe. Examples include Islamic law, Hindu law, customary law in selected African countries, Jewish law, and Christian law as reflected in Irish constitutional law and canon law as incorporated in various legal systems. Harris, SaCouto (Spring)

LAW-725C Seminar: International Protection of Refugees and Displaced Persons (2 hrs. hrs.) Examines international and national law relating to the protection of refugees and other displaced persons. The course begins with an historical overview of international refugee laws and institutions in North America, Europe, Africa, South America, and Asia. Discussion of the most current developments in international refugee protection is included, as are the unique and important issues posed by gender. (Fall)

LAW-726 Seminar: International Financial Institutions (2 hrs. hrs.) Study of the principal international financial institutions, including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Levinson (Fall)

LAW-729 Wrongful Convictions: Innocence and the Criminal Process (2 hrs. hrs.) Focuses primarily on the work of students participating in the Innocence Project; however, other students are welcome. Students will consider the methods of challenging criminal convictions and the resources currently available. They will focus on the methods of criminal investigation, the use of forensic evidence, the weaknesses of eyewitness identification, the problems of jail house informants, and the importance of narrative in challenging criminal convictions. The seminar also will explore the cause and effect of wrongful convictions in the criminal justice system and the current debate regarding the significance of the number of wrongfully convicted people who have recently been exonerated. Gilbert, Camet, Armbrust (Fall, Spring)

LAW-731 Seminar: Real Estate Planning (3 hrs. hrs.) Examines business planning and workouts for real estate transactions and contract, corporate, tax, bankruptcy, and real property law. The course is conducted through the problem method, with all problems centering on commercial transactions involving shopping centers, office buildings, or subdivisions. Burke, Horowitz (Spring)

LAW-732 Seminar: The Law of Sentencing, Sanctions, and Corrections (2 hrs. hrs.) The philosophy and practices of sentencing and corrections: retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation, the death penalty, corporal punishment, imprisonment, fines, probation, and innovative alternatives; sentencing criteria and practices; women, juveniles, and other special classes of offenders, including the insane, alcoholics, drug addicts, corporate offenders, draft resisters, political dissidents, and sexual psychopaths; a review of the institutions responsible for carrying out penal sanctions - prisons, mental institutions, and juvenile facilities; and practices of foreign countries. Kittrie (Spring)

LAW-733 Seminar: International Environmental Dispute Resolution (2 hrs. hrs.) Surveys the various tribunals to which environmental disputes involving nations or nationals of different states can be presented for resolution. The course considers the ICJ, the European Court of Justice, and the U.S. federal court system, as well as the roles of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, various human rights courts, and the International Labor Organization, along with the potential of alternative dispute resolution and roles of individuals and nongovernmental organizations. Zaelke, Hunter

LAW-736 Seminar: International Contract Law (3 hrs. hrs.) A study of private and commercial contracts with an overview of practical problems of choice-of-jurisdiction and of choice-of-law will be given in a comparative approach of the private international law of countries from all continents. Topics include some substantive law provisions plus the conflict of law solutions to several problems. Analysis will be performed of contracts and enforcement of judicial and arbitral decisions. Erauw, Mattar

LAW-737 Seminar: International Institutions and Environmental Protection (3 hrs. hrs.) Environmental protection is promoted by many international institutions yet inhibited by others. This course examines the organizations including the UN, NGOs, and regional and transnational corporate institutions. Trade institutions also are examined. Special emphasis is given to the new Sustainable Development Commission and other institutions relevant to the recent UN Conference on Environment and Development. Hunter

LAW-738 Seminar: International Courts (3 hrs. hrs.) Considers the role of international courts in developing international law. Students study the evolution and structure of international courts and arbitral tribunals and examine how those bodies discern and apply principles of substantive international law. Particular reference will be made to traditional sources in international law, such as treaties, custom, general principle of law, and secondary sources. Heywood (Fall)

LAW-739A Seminar: Advanced Human Rights (3 hrs. hrs.) Analysis of the protection of basic rights during emergency situations and noninternational armed conflicts; the concept of public emergencies and the permissible derogations under U.S., Council of Europe, OAS, and Geneva conventions; special norms concerning due process; country studies; the role of nongovernmental organizations; supervisory and remedial machinery at the universal and regional levels; methods and proposals for fostering greater state compliance with basic human rights during emergency situations. Goldman

LAW-739B Seminar: Ethnic Identity and International Law (3 hrs. hrs.) Considers the ways in which international law and international organizations have been and could be utilized to address ethnic and national tensions. The course examines pertinent international legal standards and machinery, including human rights standards prohibiting discrimination and relevant implementation machinery; standards and experience with the use of "hate laws" to repress racial and ethnic hatred; criminal law and procedures relating to genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity; and legal standards related to the rights of indigenous peoples. Students will explore international laws concerning the cultural and political rights of distinct communities within a nation and the resulting conflicts; principles of humanitarian law and intervention governing sit u a tions of national, ethnic, and clan conflict; humanitarian responses to situations of massive displacement caused by such conflict; and the impact of ethnic- and nationalist-driven independence movements on international law related to the recognition of states and the right to self-determination. Orentlicher

LAW-740 Seminar: Postconviction Remedies (3 hrs. hrs.) Examines the intellectual and emotional tensions between the finality of criminal convictions and sentences and the continuing availability of a forum in which to test them, especially by means of the celebrated writ of habeas corpus. Topics include the history and scope of the Great Writ, jurisdiction for the writ, exhaustion of state judicial remedies, procedural default, evidentiary hearings, appeals, and successive petitions. We will pay particular attention to the changes brought about by the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 and the USA Patriot Act of 2001. We will also consider some aspects of in forma pauperis proceedings and pro se litigation. Robbins (Fall)

LAW-743 Seminar: Regulation of Derivatives (2-3 hrs. hrs.) Current problems in laws and regulations affecting derivatives trading in financial markets, including exchange-traded and over-the-counter transactions. Topics include the interaction of securities and commodity trading regulations, regulation of market participants, powers of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission to regulate and enforce compliance with the laws and regulations governing derivatives, developments in self-regulation, and private rights of action. Ritter (Spring)

LAW-745 Seminar: Pension and Employee Benefit Law (3 hrs. hrs.) Provides an introduction to the federal regulation of the pension system and evaluates the policy underpinnings of the current system of pension regulation. It will focus on the legal rights established to protect individual employees as well as the requirements designed to produce equitable treatment for rank and file employees. Although most of the applicable requirements are contained in the tax law, we also examine certain nontax questions, such as issues of age and sex discrimination in the pension system, medical care for retirees, and fiduciary responsibilities under ERISA. Pike, Abramowitz (Spring)

LAW-746 Seminar: Advanced Tax Policy and Problems (2 hrs. hrs.) Selected tax problems, including pension plans, foreign tax problems, advanced corporate tax, exempt organizations, tax policy, administration, estate planning, and problems of legal research unique to the field of taxation. Prerequisite(s): Prerequisite: Federal Personal Income Tax (LAW-647). Pike, Ventry

LAW-748 Seminar: Advanced Torts (2-3 hrs. hrs.) An in-depth policy analysis of selected problems associated with the law of torts, including products liability. Popper, Breen (Spring)

LAW-749 White-Collar Crime (2 hrs. hrs.) An examination of the substantive law of white-collar crime, as well as the practice, procedure, and strategy concerning federal white-collar criminal investigations and prosecutions. Topics include the definition of and theory behind white-collar crime; investigative techniques used to combat white-collar crime; grand jury law and practice; prosecutorial discretion; plea bargaining; grants of immunity, entrapment, privileges, and other common defenses; charging decisions and drafting of indictments; sentencing and the goals of punishment; and substantive law topics including conspiracy, mail and wire fraud, bribery and public corruption, false statements, perjury, obstruction of justice, computer and Internet fraud, and money laundering. Eliason, Sklamberg (Fall)

LAW-763 Seminar: Financial Institutions (2 hrs. hrs.) An overview of current changes in the relative roles of financial institutions (banks, savings institutions, securities firms, and other financial intermediaries) and the implications of those changes on the regulation of financial institutions. Particular attention is given to existing statutes, proposed legislation, and causes for the breakdown of the compartmentalized system of financial institutions. Comizio

LAW-776 Seminar: Federal Public Lands and Natural Resources Law (2 hrs. hrs.) Study of the development and protection of federal lands and natural resources, including the outer continental shelf. Emphasis on the problems of government and user in developing mineral resources (oil and gas and mining). forests, water, and Native American lands. The preservation and protection of wilderness areas, wildlife, parks, and other public interests in the nation's lands. {Burke

LAW-781 Seminar: Local Government Law (3 hrs. hrs.) An intensive theoretical and practical inquiry into the history, theory, meanings, and possibilities of local government in American society. This seminar combines a variety of techniques with fieldwork placement to immerse students in issues of local governance. Placements include the D.C. Corporation Counsel, D.C. City Council, D.C. Legal Aid Society, Delegate Eleanor Holmes Norton's office, and the Montgomery County Council.

LAW-788 Seminar: Federal Regulatory Process (3 hrs. hrs.) An overview of the regulatory process of government administration, including the rationale for regulatory programs and reasons for ending or deregulating them, how and why Congress creates or abolishes agencies, how agencies administer their statutory programs, and alternatives to traditional regulations. Students are introduced to several government-wide procedural statutes, such as the Administrative Procedure Act and the Freedom of Information Act. A unique element of the course is the participation of more than 20 guest lecturers from the legislative and executive branches, trade associations, and the private and public interest bars. The practical aspects of the regulatory process are emphasized. I. Baker, Edles, Nelson (Summer)

LAW-789 Seminar: International Commercial Arbitration (3 hrs. hrs.) Analysis of the practical legal problems that arise in the arbitration of international commercial disputes. Drafting of arbitration agreements, selection of arbitral procedures and forums, and enforcement of arbitral awards as they arise under both domestic law (in U.S. and other major arbitration forums) and international law. Chuang, Feldman (Spring)

LAW-812 Seminar: Elder Law: Policy and Practice (2 hrs. hrs.) Explores issues confronting the elder law practitioner and examines policy issues concerning law and aging in America. Students acquire a basic working knowledge of various elder law issues, including planning for incapacity, guardianship, social security, Medicare coverage, and long-term care planning. The seminar also focuses on public policy issues, such as autonomy versus the need for protective action, death and dying, and the extent of medical and income protection for the senior population. Zetlin (Fall)

LAW-813 Seminar: Comparative Environmental Law (3 hrs. hrs.) Presents different approaches for protecting the environment through national environmental legislation. Emphasis is given to the major components of any modern environmental legal system, including, for example, environmental impact assessment, access to environmental information, science-based environmental standards, and implementation of international agreements including Agenda 21. The approach will be practical, designed to emphasize the policy trade-offs inherent in designing and implementing environmental law and policy. Will draw upon examples from civil and common law systems as well as from developing and industrialized countries. Hunter (Spring)

LAW-817 Seminar: Advanced Issues in International Trade (3 hrs. hrs.) Considers trade law as an instrument for economic development. The focus primarily is on trade problems and policy in the United States, comparing it with trade law and policy in other countries. Levinson (Fall, Spring)

LAW-818 Seminar: Law and the Behavioral Sciences (2 hrs. hrs.) Acquaints law students with the historical background and contemporary literature in law and the social sciences and involves them in research that draws upon social science methods. Discussion topics include the early theoretical orientation of United States legal realists and European historical-legal scholars. The seminar provides an introduction to a cross-cultural orientation and considers anthropological sources such as Bohanna, Nader, and Gluckman. Portions of discussion focus upon critical assessment of some of the major research endeavors that have been conducted by lawyers and social scientists. In research and writing, the emphasis is on method and problem solving. Simon

LAW-819 Seminar: Law and Literature (3 hrs. hrs.) Topics include lawmaking and literary creativity as analogous acts of ordering, similarities (and differences) between reading legal and literary texts, legal conceptions of authorship and the creative process, competing visions of justice in nonlegal literature, literary critiques of law and the legal profession, and modern and postmodern critical theory and its impact on law. Jaszi, Phelps (Spring)

LAW-820 Seminar: Legal Issues of Multinational Corporations (2 hrs. hrs.) Issues of the new economic order. Includes reference to transnational corporations in the banking field, their responsibilities for creation of problems of debt in developing countries, and their responsibilities or activities in the matter of debt rescheduling. (Spring)

LAW-821 Seminar: Legislation (2-3 hrs. hrs.) Provides an overview of federal and state legislative processes. Topics include statutory interpretation, legislative organization, the appropriations process, legislative ethics, and exercises in legislative drafting and negotiation. Frost, Raskin, Bouker, Levin

LAW-822 Seminar: Law, Policy, and American Intelligence Activities (3 hrs. hrs.) Examines the legal controls on the conduct of foreign intelligence activities by the United States, beginning with a review of what intelligence is and how it is obtained. The seminar also considers the history of United States intelligence activities in war and peace. Selected competing policy interests are identified and discussed as well. Litigation concerns inherent in national security cases also are examined. Zirkle (Fall)

LAW-823 Seminar: Problems in Advanced Securities Law (2-3 hrs. hrs.) Examines selected problems in trading and settlement in corporate and governmental securities. Guttman, Siegel, Kroll, Choi, Regan (Fall, Spring)

LAW-826 Seminar: Remedies for Constitutional and Complex Cases (2-3 hrs. hrs.) Explores in-depth damages, specific performance, declaratory judgment, quiet title, reformation, restitution, and enforcement of both equitable and legal decrees. Other problems to be considered include constitutional rights in education, prisons, housing, and takings; securities law; environmental law; Title VII; voting rights; family law; computer law; and interlocutory bonds. Kovacic-Fleischer

LAW-827 Seminar: Sexuality and the Law (3 hrs. hrs.) Analyzes the law as it relates to lesbians and gay men by discussing definitions of sexual orientation and how sexual orientation is viewed in a social context. Students focus on lesbian and gay political activism; privacy issues; censorship; and discrimination in the workplace, schools, and military. Family issues - recognition of lesbian and gay couple relations, child custody and parenting, and constitutional and statutory issues - will also be explored. Polikoff, Varona (Spring)

LAW-828 Seminar: Space Law and Satellite Communication (3 hrs. hrs.) Provides an overview of international and U.S. domestic law applicable to satellite communications, satellite remote sensing, launch vehicles, the space station, and other space projects. The focus is on international treaty interpretation, domestic licensing procedures for satellites and launch vehicles, launch service agreements, and satellite procurement contracts. Meredith (Fall)

LAW-829 Seminar: Trade and the Environment (3 hrs. hrs.) Provides an introduction to the legal issues pertaining to the interplay and conflict between classic trade law and domestic and international environmental law. Examines international trade law and corresponding U.S. law and specific cases of trade and envi ronmental interactions. Also reviews international environmental laws that have an impact on trade and determines whether these laws would be found to violate free trade principles. Addresses the issue of global interdependence that gives rise to domestic and international systemic issues.

LAW-830 Seminar: Settlement of International Trade Disputes (3 hrs. hrs.) Examines the existing and emerging dispute settlement mechanisms in inter-national trade: the basic principles of international dispute settlement; General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; Western Hemisphere trading arrangements; EC and the European Court, EFTA, ASEAN, and Asian arrangements; commercial arbitration; settlement of investment and intellectual property disputes; and emerging trends.

LAW-831 Seminar: Housing Discrimination (2 hrs. hrs.) Provides a survey of the major federal statutes that protect against housing discrimination, with primary emphasis on the Fair Housing Act of 1968, as amended. The seminar covers the substantive protection contained in the statutes and discusses related public policy questions. Special emphasis is given to the practical resolution of problems encountered in litigation cases. Allen, Magagna (Spring)

LAW-832 Seminar: AIDS and the Law (2-3 hrs. hrs.) Examines the AIDS epidemic and the body of law that has developed in connection with it. Considers the medical and epidemiological aspects of AIDS and, to some extent, tuberculosis, as well as the law itself. Bruner (Fall)

LAW-836 Seminar: Computer Crime (2 hrs. hrs.) Explores the legal issues that judges, legislators, and prosecutors are beginning to confront as they respond to the recent explosion in computer-related crime. In particular, students consider how crimes in cyberspace will challenge traditional approaches to the investigation and prosecution of crimes that have evolved from our experience with crimes in physical space. Topics include the Fourth Amendment in cyberspace, the law of electronic surveillance, computer hacking, computer viruses, encryption, on-line economic espionage and intellectual property protection, cyber-terrorism, federal-state relations in the enforcement of computer crime laws, and civil liberties on-line. Herrera, Ohm (Spring)

LAW-838 American Courts: Structure, People, Processes, Politics (2 hrs. hrs.) Explores the factors that shape trial and appellate courts. These factors are of major public policy interest to all lawyers and of direct practical interest to lawyers who anticipate working in the courts temporarily as law clerks or regularly as litigators. The seminar examines court organization and structure, including court personnel; the judicial selection process and roles of executive officials, legislators, political parties, the bar, judges, and would-be judges; and the ethical rules that govern judges and mechanisms for dealing with judicial disability and misbehavior. It also considers the public and private sources of education for (and influence of) judges about basic aspects of judging as well as complex scientific and technical matters, the processes and politics of adopting and amending rules of procedure, and other such topics. Rider, Wheeler (Fall, Spring)

LAW-841 International Project Finance (2 hrs. hrs.) Examines legal, financial, and policy problems involved in investing across national borders while focusing on strategies and techniques of structuring and financing such investments. Topics considered include the differing business interests and perspectives of typical parties to such transactions, local law issues and the international legal and regulatory environment for foreign investment, and the role of political risk management. Selected international investment transactions, both actual and hypothetical, are used to illustrate recurring issues. R. Cohen, Chaudhry, O'Sullivan, Hoff-Patrinos (Spring)

LAW-843 Advanced Issues in Immigration Law: Policy, Enforcement, and Review (3 hrs. hrs.) Explores the historical and policy considerations underlying the comprehensive 1996 immigration reform statute and the current implementation, enforcement, and litigation of selected provisions. Students focus on constitutional, federal, and administrative law affecting (1) summary removal of asylum seekers; (2) arrest and detention of noncitizens; (3) admission standards and administrative hearing and appeal rights; (4) exercise of agency discretion over relief from removal; (5) jurisdiction and standards governing forms of federal judicial review. In addition, the course will address areas of special focus such as gender, domestic violence, and sexual preference-based claims; criminal offenders and terrorists; and naturalization and citizenship issues.

LAW-850 International Criminal Law (3 hrs. hrs.) Surveys both substantive and procedural aspects of international and transnational criminal law. Examines historical origins as well as contemporary trends in the development of international crimes. Identifies the elements of major offenses including piracy, slavery, drug trafficking, terrorism, war crimes, environmental pollution, money laundering, genocide, and aircraft hijacking and explores the incorporation of international criminal law in domestic codes. Students examine the jurisdictional and enforcement responsibilities of international, transnational, and national agencies and tribunals. An overview of international and national enforcement mechanisms and techniques and of the procedures affecting the rights of offen ders and victims is included. Prerequisite(s): Prerequisite: Criminal Law (LAW-507. Kittrie (Fall)

LAW-852 Law of Nonprofit Organizations (2 hrs. hrs.) Introduces the regulation of nonprofit organizations from both the federal tax and state fiduciary regulatory standpoints. Students consider the major aspects of nonprofit regulation, including substantive law, and the major public policy controversies over the proper role of tax-exempt nonprofit organizations emerging today. K. Anderson, Sa. Juan (Spring)

LAW-857 Banking Law and Regulation (3 hrs. hrs.) Examines banking, the regulation of banks, and the challenges facing this regulatory scheme. Includes background information and considers the ways in which banking is evolving due to technological and economic developments. The course looks at the conflicting pressures on banks to be more responsive to local community needs and to compete in a global and less easily regulated financial system. Considers the regulatory framework applicable to bank holding companies and explores the debate on the statutory separation between investment and commercial banks. Provides an overview of the regulations applicable to foreign banks operating in the United States and to U.S. banks operating abroad. Students may register for this seminar or Domestic Banking (LAW-724) but not both. Bradlow

LAW-860 Criminal Defense: Theory and Practice (3 hrs. hrs.) Taught through a combination of lecture, discussion, and simulation, the course is designed to teach the fundamentals of zealous, client-centered criminal defense advocacy. The first part of the semester will focus on the role of the criminal defense attorney, defense ethics, and selected legal issues in defense practice. The second part will focus on the application of defense theory and client-centered advocacy in the pretrial and trial context through simulated exercises, including the initial client interview, opening statements, direct examination, cross-examination, and closing arguments. Prerequisite(s): Prerequisite: Criminal Procedure (LAW-508). Recommended: Evidence (LAW-633). Instructor permission required for enrollment. Davis (Spring)

LAW-862 The Law of NAFTA (2 hrs. hrs.) Introduces the NAFTA agreement and the different legal approaches to it. Students will consider all the substantive chapters of the agreement governing trade in goods and services, investment, technical provisions, intellectual property, and dispute settlement. Students also will study important related issues such as the labor and envi ronment side agreements and future extension of the agreement in other forums. (Spring)

LAW-863 Litigating Reparations for African Americans (3 hrs. hrs.) Provides students the opportunity to integrate human rights legal theory with practical experience. Students will study the legal theory and historical bases of a reparations claim that will be filed on behalf of a class of African Americans. They will develop the causes of action for this claim utilizing traditional legal research, analysis of instances where reparations have been given to other groups, and interviews of potential plaintiffs and reparations activists. Also considered will be the historic context for present-day harms that will serve as the basis for the causes of actions, developing a connection between these present-day harms and the institution of slavery. Aiyetoro (Fall)

LAW-864 Federal Legal Institutions: Navigating Washington Legal Power Centers (2 hrs. hrs.) Examines in detail the functions of specific offices and institutions in all three governmental branches that are not well known but have great influence in Washington. Examples include the Office of Legal Counsel in the Justice Department, OMB's Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the General Accounting Office, and the Federal Judicial Center. The Congressional budget process and various oversight mechanisms, including inspectors general and ombudsmen, also will be reviewed. Prerequisite(s): Prerequisite: Constitutional Law (LAW-503). Administrative Law is helpful but not required. Lubbers

LAW-866 Asian Pacific Americans and the Law (3 hrs. hrs.) Discourse on American law traditionally has marginalized Asian Pacific Americans. This course disrupts the traditional view by placing Asian Pacific Americans at the center. Since the nineteenth century, American law has profoundly shaped the demographics, experiences, and possibilities of Asian Pacific Americans. At the same time, Asian Pacific Americans have had a tremendous impact on the shaping of American law. This course will examine these relationships through judicial opinions, law review articles, historical and contemporary readings on topics such as immigration and naturalization, alien land laws, internment and reparations, colonialism and self-determination, labor issues, racial and gender violence, affirmative action, sexuality and miscegenation, and community empowerment. Eng

LAW-870 Temas Especiales en Derecho Internacional (3 hrs. hrs.) Taught in Spanish, this course addresses sources and subjects of international law, the international responsibilities of states, peaceful settlement of disputes, and rights and obligations of individuals under international law. Open only to students who have not taken public international law in English or Spanish. C. Grossman, Martin, Rodriguez-Pinzon

LAW-880 Frontiers of Legal Thought (2 hrs. hrs.) Examines cutting-edge issues in law, jurisprudence, and social policy. After an introduction to work-family issues, the class focuses on specialized topics that have included discrimination law, family law, labor and employment law, legislation, gender pressures on men, same-sex couples, working-class parents, cross-cultural perspectives, and commodification. Readings include judicial opinions, law review articles, and historical and contemporary readings on workplace structure, class, family relationships, marriage, parenting, and divorce. Outside policy experts join us to lead discussions about current research and policy issues.

LAW-881 Advanced Problems in Administrative Law and Regulatory Policy (2 hrs. hrs.) Combines a focus on advanced doctrinal issues in administrative law with a semester-long problem devoted to writing, commenting on, and presenting oral argument about a major proposed rule. Topics to be addressed include regulatory reform (role of the White House and Congressional initiatives), innovative regulatory approaches, negotiated rule making, cost-benefit analysis and risk assessment, the role of administrative law judges, the controversy over courts' reliance on legislative history, the need for specialized courses for review of agency action, and openness statutes. Lubbers, J. Nelson, Witken

LAW-882 The Role of the Federal Prosecutor (2 hrs. hrs.) Explores the powers and responsibilities of the federal prosecutor. Focuses on how decisions are made by federal prosecutors throughout different stages of the criminal justice system, in light of legal, policy, practical, and ethical considerations. Using actual cases as well as federal statutes, guidelines, and other materials, the course will discuss the factors that influence the decisions and discretion of the federal prosecutor. The course also will examine the interaction between and among federal, state, and foreign jurisdictions, in particular the interests of competing sovereigns in the investigation and prosecution of criminal activity. Prerequisite(s): Prerequisites: Criminal Law (LAW-507) and Criminal Procedure I (LAW-508). Recommended, but not required: Constitutional Law (LAW-503) and Evidence (LAW-633). Limited enrollment. (Class will meet at the main Justice Building, 950 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, D.C. {Robinson (Fall, Spring)

LAW-883 State Constitutional Law (3 hrs. hrs.) Explores the issues and alternatives presented by state constitutional litigation. Among the topics considered are the nature of state constitutions, relationship to federal constitution, state constitutional interpretation, and unique interpretation issues. Peck

LAW-886 Theories of Pedagogy (3 hrs. hrs.) Examines the relationship of legal theory and pedagogical practice in four of the major approaches to law and legal education that are operative within American legal education today: Socratic teaching and the case method, gender and the law (feminist theory and gay and lesbian legal theory), clinical theory, and critical race theory. Students in the course will analyze how the educational project of any theory is connected to its theoretical foundations and practical missions and whether and why educational method matters. They will identify the different ways in which theory affects the issues and questions addressed in a class and the methods used to teach about those issues. Students will explore each of the theories from the perspectives of the teacher and the learner. Shalleck (Spring)

LAW-887 Community Development and Advocacy (2 hrs. hrs.) Explores the history, social policy, and legal mechanisms of community economic development (CED) as an alternative, transactional approach to the problems of poverty. CED springs from philosophies about neighborhood development and about community advocacy: to rejuvenate neighborhoods from the perspective of those who live there and not from the top down and to work collaboratively with community clients in developing political as well as legal strategies. The field merges many bodies of substantive law, including business associations, local government, administrative law, real estate transactions, environmental law, social welfare and housing law, and tax. Students look at the nonprofit community development corporations, the foundations, and the small businesses that are the engines of this new movement to see how they (and their lawyers) use legal and other tools to produce services, jobs, and housing for their communities. Bennett (Spring)

LAW-888 Seminar: Telecommunications Law and Regulation (2 hrs. hrs.) Examines legal and public policy issues in the regulation of telecommunications common carriers by the Federal Communications Commission and other administrative agencies. The course explores agency implementation of the Communications Act of 1934 and the Telecommunications Act of 1996, as amended, focusing on recent developments in telecommunications law and regulation, such as competition in the telecommunications industry, treatment of Bell operating companies, universal service, wireless technologies, and other telephony, Internet, and Internet telephony issues. Janas (Fall)

LAW-889 Labor and Employment: Work, Family, and Equity (2 hrs. hrs.) Reviews the restrictions on employees' choice of time allocation and the problems those restrictions cause. Looks at the statutes from the point of view of determining whether any parts of the statutes could be adapted to regulate the workplace to allow employees more time with their families. Defenses and the employerspoints of view will be considered. A variety of approaches, from leaves to childcare, and a variety of funding sources, from employers to governments, will be considered. Students will look at nonlegislative solutions and will consider how restraints on time allocation have a disproportionate effect on women's pay and success and on men's ability to participate in family life. Kovacic-Fleisher

LAW-890 Advanced Issues in International Business Transactions: Transnational Reach of Economic Regulation (2-3 hrs. hrs.) Concentrates on extraterritorial application of U.S. business laws and the ever-increasing move towards harmonization of business laws globally. Students consider selected legal issues confronted in international business transactions and the challenge of extraterritoriality. The course explores the willingness of U.S. courts to distinguish between "economic" and "non-economic" laws and the traditional view that "economic" laws are more amenable to extraterritorial application - e.g., antitrust, tax, and securities - than "non-economic" laws, such as environment and labor. Students also will consider the current and ongoing push to combat corruption in international business. Finally, they will look at how the growing interaction between rights advocates and traditional trade and investment actors are affecting both the language of rights and the language of the market. {Ala'i

LAW-891 Lobbying and the Legislative Process (2 hrs. hrs.) Addresses the constitutional basis for and history of paid lobbying; the legal and ethical restrictions and considerations a lawyer-lobbyist needs to consider; the role of money and politics in lobbying; and practical elements of how to be an effective lawyer-lobbyist. Gustitus, Susman

LAW-892 The Washington Lawyer (2 hrs. hrs.) Gives students an overview of what it means to be an effective "Washington lawyer." Topics include the importance of the Administrative Procedure Act; navigating the White House, Justice Department, and executive agencies; influencing the legislative process and the appointments process; using openness statutes and the media; and ethics and lobbying restrictions. Lubbers, Weckstein

LAW-893 Global Public Interest Practice (2 hrs. hrs.) Examines the history and growth of public interest law practice from its early days in the United States to contemporary models, both in the developed global north and the developing global south. The course looks at such types of public interest lawyering as charitable lawyering, movement lawyering, resistance lawyering, rights-based lawyering, and emancipatory lawyering. It also encompasses a wide range of lawyering activities for social change, including legal aid, movement advocacy, public defense, impact litigation, human rights advocacy, pro bono lawyering, cause lawyering, and other kinds of legal action that share a common commitment to justice for those who would not otherwise have access to the legal system. The course will explore the ways in which these various approaches to legal practice share common values, and the ways in which those values sometimes come into conflict. It also will provide practical insights into the strategies and tactics of public interest law practice for those who are interested in careers in that field or in volunteer efforts through pro bono activities. Wilson

LAW-896 Law and the Visual Arts (3 hrs. hrs.) Introduces students to the full range of legal issues that arise concerning works of art, the art market, and the art world. Topics to be covered include the fate of works of art in wartime, the international trade in stolen and illegally exported cultural property, artistic freedom, censorship and state support for art and artists, copyright, moral rights and trademark rights, collectors and the art market, and art museums and their collections. Students will consider how the law has dealt with the profound question of what is art and also examine the practical legal problems of visual artists and the commercial art world relating to the protection, acquisition, exhibition, and sale of art works. Major themes of the course will be the policy balance between public and private interest, the impact of law on heritage, and the role that law plays in shaping cultural policy. Farley (Spring)

LAW-898 Legal and Judicial Reform and the Administration of Justice (2 hrs. hrs.) Through a case-study approach, the course will examine the specific reform efforts of various countries to make the administration of justice more efficient, effective, and accessible. Issues include judicial independence; economic and social development; modernization of the law; strengthening court administration; the role of civil society in the reform process; alternative methods of settling disputes; training for the judiciary; performance indicators; and the design, implementation, and evaluation of justice projects. Course materials include real development project reports from the international lending and donor agencies, including the World Bank, USAID, African Development Bank, and Inter-American Development. Recommended: Comparative Law (LAW-619). Bhansali (Fall)

LAW-913 Trial Advocacy: Litigating in the High-Tech Courtroom (2 hrs. hrs.) Technology has introduced rapid changes in the way evidence is presented at trial. It is now well recognized that jurors, as well as judges, retain and are persuaded more effectively by visual information, rather than the spoken word. This course will explore through lecture, demonstration, and discussion the accumulation, organization, and presentation of proof in the digital world. This will include an examination of evidentiary and procedural rules as they relate to visual advocacy, computer technology, and digital graphics. Students will also prepare and present visual evidence using the evidence camera and PowerPoint graphics in various trial segments (opening, closing, etc.) based upon case files created for teaching purposes by the National Institute of Trial Advocacy. Prerequisite(s): Prerequisite: Evidence (LAW-633). Austrian (Spring)

LAW-914 Seminar: Latin American Legal Systems (3 hrs. hrs.) Provides a survey of the Latin American legal environment for JD students. The course offers an overview of Latin American legal history, constitutionalism, and sources of law, civil and criminal procedure, and principal civil law concepts. It also provides a comparative law perspective on Latin American legal systems and the common law system, including their interaction in the Americas. This seminar will benefit students seeking to work in different areas related to Latin America, such as legal departments of corporations doing business in Latin America; international institutions (such as the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, and UN agencies); U.S. government agencies (EPA, USTR, USAID); Latin American practice groups in law firms; international human rights, environmental, and other nongovernmental organizations; academia; and consulting firms providing legal services for Latin American governments. Figueroa (Spring)

LAW-924 Advanced Copyright Law and Policy (2-3 hrs. hrs.) Focuses on recent and current controversies before Congress, the courts, and federal agencies. Topics covered include the effect of technological developments on copyright law and policy, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and more recent legislative proposals, an exploration of the legislative process in developing copyright policy, and the effect of the DMCA and other proposals on such traditional copyright principles as the doctrines of fair use and first sale. The course will explore these policy issues through and examination of relevant legislative history, statutory text, judicial review, and scholarly commentaries. Major themes of the course include the balance between public and private interest, incentive and control, technology and authorship, ownership and reasonable use, the impact of the law on society, and the role law plays in shaping cultural policy. Kasunic (Spring)

LAW-928 Analytical Methods for Business Lawyers (3 hrs. hrs.) Introduces a range of concepts and analytical methods important to much of the business law curriculum and practice in business law areas. The topics will include most or all of the following: decision analysis, games and information, contracting, accounting, finance, microeconomics, economic analysis of law, and fundamentals of statistical analysis. The course aims to provide an introduction to these methods and concepts in a manner that will be fully accessible to those with no prior quantitative training or background in these subjects and give students the tools to analyze concrete problems in a wide range of legal practice settings. J. Baker (Spring)

LAW-935 Seminar: Congress, Law-Making, and Foreign Affairs (3 hrs. hrs.) Explores the various levers of law-making power in the foreign affairs field that are available for exercise by Congress to affect U.S. foreign policy, including the "power of the purse" (authorization and appropriations statutes), the congressional war power, the Senate's role in treaty-making, the enactment of international economic sanctions, border-control measures, the power to establish governmental offices and bodies, and the passage of nonbinding "policy" resolutions. Special reference will be made to post-9/11 statutes and related legal developments. The seminar will emphasize basic skills and exercises in the drafting of foreign relations legislation. Rynearson (Spring)

LAW-950 Seminar: NAFTA and Other Regional Trade Agreements (3 hrs. hrs.) Provides an overview of the theory and operation of NAFTA and other regional trade agreements with a view to assessing the legal, economic, and political limitations of the theory of comparative advantage. Among the issues to be considered are the relationship between regional trade agreements and the multilateral agreements under the WTO; selected substantive and procedural elements of NAFTA, MERCOSUR, and APEC; and customs, phytosanitary, and other rules addressing trade in goods, the limits of sovereignty, and comparative analysis of various bilateral agreements. Frank, Kenworthy (Fall)

LAW-951 Seminar: Negotiating Regional Trade Agreements (2 hrs. hrs.) Introduces the theory and process of negotiating agreements. International trade is increasingly important for the stability of national economies. The multilateral trading system is primarily based upon the agreements under the WTO. Increasingly, regional trade or economic arrangements play and important role. These include NAFTA, the EU, and dozens of regional and bilateral agreements. {Holbein, Carpentier (Fall)

LAW-952 Seminar: Regulation of Trade in Goods and Services under Regional Trade Agreements (2 hrs. hrs.) Presents an introduction to the primary operational provisions of regional trade agreements. It supplements the overview seminar on regional agreements by providing deeper and more thorough review of critical issues of implementation including Most Favored Nation (MFN) treatment, National Treatment, and import-export restraints. Topics include a comparison of regional trade agreements, analysis of how various trading partners deal with market access issues, technical barriers, sanitary and phytosanitary provisions, government procurement, and cross-border trade services. Griffith, McRory (Spring)

LAW-953 Seminar: Investment under Regional Trade Agreements (2 hrs. hrs.) Examines regional integration as a mechanism for increasing flows of foreign direct investment between trading partners. A large number of regional trade agreements have been negotiated in the last two decades. In the investment area, several multilateral agreements have important overlap with regional arrangements. Multilateral approaches include the World Trade Organization (WTO) system, which provides an agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMS) and a system for general disputes under that set of rules and commitments. In addition, the International Convention for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) provides a forum for investors to resolve investment issues with governments that are parties to the convention for such issues as expropriation. Students will review, analyze, and discuss the Bilateral Investment Treaty form of agreement that has proliferated globally and has evolved from a developed-to-developing-country protective mechanism into a more general set of rules for regional and bilateral application. Weiler (Fall)

LAW-954 Seminar: Dispute Settlement Processes under Regional Trade Agreements (2 hrs. hrs.) Provides background on international trade rules and how trade disputes are resolved within the various regional arrangements. Students will consider how disputes arise and look at various regional systems for dealing with general disputes under the agreements, as well as recurrent problem areas, including antidumping and countervailing duties and investment. Holbein (Spring)

LAW-955 Seminar: The Impact of Regional Integration on Environment and Labor (2 hrs. hrs.) International trade is increasingly important for the stability of national economies. The multilateral trading system is primarily based upon the agreements under the WTO. Increasingly, regional trade or economic arrangements play an important role. These include the NAFTA, the EU, and dozens of regional and bilateral agreements. Pressure has been building for many years to include protections for labor rights and environmental regulation as part of regional trade agreements. This class is designed to investigate this emerging and controversial area at the intersection of legal, political, and economic goals. Carpentier (Spring)

LAW-956 Seminar: Selected Issues in International Business Law (2 hrs. hrs.) Provides students with an opportunity to gain insight into the dynamics of negotiating and structuring international business transactions, including the role that lawyers and law play in these negotiations, and gives students some experience in drafting communications. Students also consider the legal and business issues that may arise in joint ventures and licensing agreements. Bradlow (Spring)

LAW-957 Real Estate Development Law and Practice (2-3 hrs. hrs.) Fieldwork and supervision centered on real estate development. Prerequisite(s): Prerequisite: Land Transfer and Finance (LAW-671). Burke, Mark

LAW-958 Managing Political Risk in Project Financings (2 hrs. hrs.) Examines concepts of political risk and the means by which certain political risks can be managed in planning and structuring foreign investments, particularly in international project financings. Readings include both articles about the issues and examples of political risk insurance contract forms used by private insurers, national government agencies, and multilateral institutions. The opportunity to analyze and revise original contract documents will be an incidental benefit of the course. The variety of source material will expose students to the public policy issues that underlie the decision to issue such insurance and the consequences of doing so. Some incidental coverage of insurance law, international law, and dispute resolution will also be required. Hansen, O'Sullivan

LAW-959 Business Transactions in Latin America (2 hrs. hrs.) Provides an overview of practical issues involved in doing business in Latin America. The seminar focuses on, among other topics, contracts, corporate forms and finance, commercial practices, labor issues, privatization, joint ventures, and franchise agreements. Students also compare foreign investment laws among different Latin American jurisdictions; discuss choice of forum and law issues applicable to international commercial contracts executed in or applicable to Latin America; and examine relevant consumer protection legislation. In addition, students will consider the enforcement of arbitration agreements and foreign arbitral awards. Figueroa

LAW-960 Military Justice (2-3 hrs. hrs.) Explores the nature and function of military justice today. Topics examined include the constitutional rights of military personnel; court-martial jurisdiction and offenses; trial and appellate structure and procedure; collateral review; the roles of commanders, Congress, the Supreme Court, and the president; command influence; the role of custom; punishment; and the correctional system. Current issues, such as those involving military commissions, command accountability, military justice on the battlefield, judicial independence, homosexuality, adultery, and fraternization, will be addressed. Throughout the course students will consider whether and how the military justice system can be improved. Using comparative law materials, they also will consider what, if anything, can be learned from the experiences of other countries. Fidell (Spring)

LAW-961 Advanced Property Issues: Property Interests in Persons (2 hrs. hrs.) Explores the competing interests in bodies, body parts, and reproductive functions, materials, and products in various contexts ranging from marriage and cadaver selling to prostitution and gestational surrogacy and examines the tensions between the legal regulation, protection, and infringement upon self-possession and the individual's interest in bodily integrity and autonomy. The seminar will be organized around four major themes: historical and theoretical implications of law, society and self-possession, bodies, and body parts and reproduction. The materials and readings in each section will be drawn from a wide variety of disciplines in order to give students the widest possible lens to consider these complex issues. Bridgewater

LAW-962 Advanced Intellectual Property: Intellectual Property and Human Rights (3 hrs. hrs.) Examines international intellectual property rules through the lenses of human rights law and development policy. The course will study how different intellectual property frameworks possess the capacity to overcome or perpetuate global inequality, underdevelopment, and access to essential goods and services. It will also study the strategies and tactics of global movements mobilizing around issues of access to medicines, textbooks, and other essential knowledge goods. It is highly recommended that students complete at least one course in intellectual property law or international law before enrolling in this class. Flynn

LAW-963 International and Comparative Patent Law (2 hrs. hrs.) Provides a general introduction to international patent law in theory and practice. The class examines patent laws from an international perspective and explores evolving international jurisprudence. The foundation is the fundamental principles and the black letter law of international treaties. Students also look at current themes in international policy debates, such as biotechnology and electronic commerce. The focus is on practical aspects of international patent acquisition and enforcement. The class considers various treaties, including the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and global enforcement issues, as well as the European Patent Office and PCT practice. Students also discuss unity of invention and other examination standards and U.S.-global harmonization. Recommended: Patent Law (LAW-688) Green

LAW-964 Introduction to the Continental Legal System (2 hrs. hrs.) Provides an introduction to foreign legal systems of the civil law tradition in the language of origin (Spanish). The course will consider the theoretical foundations of the continental system, the main differences as compared to the U.S. framework, and the sources of continental law. Students will gain an understanding of the role and function of the constitution in countries of the continental law tradition and the hierarchical structure and different weight that written laws, judicial decisions, doctrine, principles of law, and contracts play as a source of law in this system. The course will include analysis of legal concepts of civil law as opposed to criminal law, jus in rem, personal rights, pledge, mortgage, and property and ownership, among others. (Fall, Spring)

LAW-966 Media and the First Amendment (2-3 hrs. hrs.) Examines the different ways in which the First Amendment protects and/or regulates the news media. Topics to be covered include prior restraints; newsgathering and access to information; reporter's privilege and source confidentiality; defamation, privacy, and other related torts. Wermiel

LAW-967 Immigration Issues: Employment and Family (2 hrs. hrs.) Specifically addresses family- and employment-based immigration topics and provides students with an in-depth, practice-oriented look at both the issues and the procedures involved in handling family- and employment-based immigration cases. (Fall)