Elective Courses

The law school makes all reasonable efforts to offer the following electives on a periodic basis but cannot guarantee that each course or seminar will be available to all students who wish to take it during their law school careers. More precise information on the courses and seminars that will be offered in a given semester, including those not listed here, is available from the registrar during the preregistration and general registration periods.

LAW-581 U.S. Business Law (3 hrs.) Designed to provide foreign lawyers an understanding of the U.S. business environment, the course covers basic concepts of business associations, sales, secured transactions, securities law, debtor-creditor relations, antitrust, consumer protection, and tax. Open only to LLM students in international legal studies. Roberts, Eule (Fall, Spring)

LAW-601 Administrative Law (3-4 hrs.) A study of the structure, powers, and processes of administrative agencies that are the source of much of our nation's law. Topics include the delegation of power to agencies, the constitutional right to a hearing, agency procedures of adjudication and rule making, information law debates, judicial review of agencies, and administrative reform. Lubbers, Niles, Popper, Varona (Fall, Spring)

LAW-602 Corporate Crime (3 hrs.) Examines developments in corporate and white-collar crime. Particular emphasis is given to crimes involving financial institutions, government contractors, and companies whose manufacturing processes harm the environment. Legislation examined includes the Money Laundering Control Act; the Bank Secrecy Act; the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA); the Clear Water Act; the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act (RICO); and mail and wire fraud provisions. Attention also is given to the sentencing of corporations and individual white-collar crime defendants under federal sentencing guidelines. Krantz, O'Neill (Spring)

LAW-605 First Amendment (4 hrs.) The history and a contemporary interpretation of this amendment. Completes a survey of basic constitutional law begun in LAW-503. Raskin, Wermiel, E. Correia (Fall)

LAW-606 U.S. Legal History I (3 hrs.) Explores the interaction of American law and society primarily from the Revolutionary War and New Republic era through post-Civil War reconstruction, with a brief introductory overview of colonial developments. Examines the origins, evolution, and impact of major constitutional, statutory, and private law developments in this period. Specific topics include changes in understanding and operation of basic constitutional rights; the evolving scope of governmental power and relationship between federal and state authority; legal promotion and regulation of American economic life, particularly through the development and application of property, tort, and contract law; the changing legal and social status and activity of women, African-Americans, and industrial workers; evolving ideas and practices regarding crime and criminals; and the history of the legal profession. L. Grossman, May (Fall)

LAW-609 U.S. Trademark Law (3 hrs.) Develops an understanding of the competing theoretical rationales for protection of trade symbols. Explores the historical development of trademark and unfair competition law as well as issues of current interest, such as protection of nontraditional subject matter; conflicts between trademark protection and the copyright or patent laws; the protection against dilution; conflicts with free expression; the right of publicity; and domain name disputes. It will also offer a practical approach to substantive issues facing modern practitioners, including acquisition or loss of rights and trademark litigation. Farley, Kelly (Fall)

LAW-610 U.S. Legal History II (3 hrs.) Explores the development of American legal doctrine and thought and its interaction with broader trends in society from post-Civil War Reconstruction to the present. Topics examined include constitutional law, private law, government regulation, and jurisprudence. U.S. Legal History I is not a prerequisite. L. Grossman, May (Spring)

LAW-611 Business Associations (4 hrs.) The state laws governing business entities with an analysis of legal and business considerations, including basic tax questions leading to business associations in corporate and unincorporated form. Agency and judiciary principles applied to business associations are analyzed in relation to corporations and partnerships. Topics include the creation of general and limited partnerships; the relationship of the partners inter se, and of the partners and the partnership to third parties; the creation, form, and nature of the closely held corporation; rights and duties of shareholders, directors, and officers; rules relating to dividends and dissolution; and an introduction to applicable provisions of federal securities laws. K. Anderson, Effross, Greenberg, Siegel, Wallace (Fall, Spring)

LAW-612 Securities Regulation (3 hrs.) The role of the federal securities law in relation to corporate issues; problems of financing; proxy solicitations; dealings in corporate stock; and reorganization and disclosure. Siegel, Quinn (Fall, Spring)
Prerequisite(s): Business Associations (LAW-611).

LAW-613 Advanced Corporate Law (2 hrs.) The state laws governing both publicly held and close corporations, with emphasis on issues either introduced or not covered in Business Associations. Topics vary each year but may include corporate governance in the 1990s; shareholder voting, proxy contests, and meetings; developments in mergers and takeovers; appraisal rights; developments and dissolution of close corporations; indemnification; and creditors' rights. Effross, Siegel (Spring)
Prerequisite(s): Business Associations (LAW-611).

LAW-614 Alternative Dispute Resolution (3 hrs.) Examines various dispute resolution techniques, including negotiation, mediation, arbitration, minitrials, and negotiated rule making, as alternatives or supplements to court litigation and administrative agency adjudication. Tactical and ethical issues as well as emerging legal and public policy issues, e.g., use of mandatory arbitration clauses, will be covered, and student participatory role-plays will be used extensively to give the course a practical dimension. Lopez, B. Murphy. Sharp (Fall)

LAW-615 Sales and Secured Transactions (3-4 hrs.) The Law of Sales, including documentary sales and use of letters of credit, followed by an integrated study of the law of modern credit transactions, sales financing, and security devices. I. Baker, Effross, Hughes, Snyder (Fall, Spring)
Prerequisite(s): (You may not take LAW-839 or LAW-840 if you take LAW-615.)

LAW-616 Negotiable Instruments (3 hrs.) Payment devices such as commercial paper, electronic fund transfers, and credit cards; documents of title; the participation of banks in the collection process under the Uniform Commercial Code and other pertinent statutes. I. Baker. Effross (Fall, Spring)

LAW-617 International Application of U.S. Environmental Law (3 hrs.) Examines the international aspects of U.S. environmental law. The intersection of U.S. and international environmental law has expanded dramatically in recent years with U.S. participation in a growing number of international environmental agreements and the ongoing integration of the world economy. The course emphasizes the practical aspects of counseling clients in this emerging area of law. Topics include the extraterritorial reach of U.S. environmental laws; international environmental litigation in U.S. courts; the implementation of environmental treaties; U.S. and international controls on the transboundary shipment of chemicals and hazardous waste; trade and the environment; and the environmental guidelines of the World Bank, Export-Import Bank, and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation. Hagen, Walls (Summer)

LAW-618 International Environmental Law (3 hrs.) A contemporary perspective on international environmental law focusing on specific environmental threats and the most recent manifestations of the law. The course will include case studies of actual investigations such as global warming and sea level rise; export and import of hazardous waste; the problem of "ghost" driftnets abandoned in the global commons of our marine environment; the endangered African elephant; continued whaling by Japan and Iceland; and the protection of the aboriginal Penan Tribe in Malaysia. Recent manifestations of international environmental law include the Declaration of The Hague and the proposal for a new organization to be known as GLOBE. Attention also will be given to the considerable body of environmental law in the European Community, the general foundations of international law, and the relationship to human rights law and international trade law. Hunter, Zaelke (Fall)

LAW-619 Comparative Law (3 hrs.) An examination of various legal traditions (e.g., common law, civil law, traditional law, and religious law) through the identification of similarities and differences among them using inter alia, an approach that shows how common problems are solved in the practices of the legal cultures involved. Participants develop a general theoretical framework for comparison and a better understanding of their own legal culture. Nicola (Spring)

LAW-620 International Humanitarian Law (3 hrs.) A study of international principles and rules regulating the conduct of international and other armed conflicts; the historical development of restraints on armed conflict; the distinction between rules governing recourse to armed coercion and those governing the conduct of armed hostilities; the protections afforded by the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the 1977 Protocols to combatants and noncombatants, including civilians, POWs, the wounded, and the sick; the role of the International Committee of the Red Cross; and human rights issues. Goldman, Parks (Fall)

LAW-621 Conflict of Laws (3 hrs.) Considers the rules applicable in private law where at least one of the operative facts in the case is connected with some state or country other than the one in which the suit is brought. The areas examined include torts, contracts, property, commercial law, administration of estates, and family law. The course also considers the recognition and enforcement of judgments of sister states and foreign countries. Generally, we will look at some fascinating intellectual puzzles that state and federal courts confront on a daily basis. Robbins (Fall)

LAW-623 Copyright (3 hrs.) An examination of the legal protection afforded the fruits of literary and creative endeavor, the Federal Copyright Act of 1976, the nature of copyright protection, types of works covered, mechanisms of securing protection, and procedures for enforcement. Topics include the history of copyright; the relationship of copyright to other forms of protection for intellectual property; and the interaction between new technologies, including data processing and copyright law. Jaszi (Fall)

LAW-624 U.S. Taxation of International Business (3 hrs.) An introduction to U.S. taxation of U.S. and foreign persons engaged in international activities. Topics include U.S. jurisdiction to tax, tax treaties, allocation of income, transfer pricing, foreign tax credits, etc. We will discuss the recent changes in legislation pertaining to U.S. international tax rules under the JOBS Act of 2004. The goal of the class is to provide an overview of the relevant law, giving due respect to its complexity and the policies underlying it, and to identify and tackle the types of issues that most frequently arise. Keinan, Field

LAW-625 Corporate Bankruptcy (2 hrs.) The legal requirements and procedures under Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code; competing interests and strategies involved in a reorganization case; basic financial valuation concepts; assembly of a reorganization plan; and special problems related to securities, tax, and pension laws. Corr, Effross (Spring)
Prerequisite(s): Business Associations (LAW-611).

LAW-626 Human Rights (3 hrs.) The historical development of and substantial body of substantive and procedural rule comprising the contemporary International Law of Human Rights; UN human rights programs; regional programs for human rights protection, including inter-American and European systems. Goldman, C. Grossman, Martin, Rodriguez-Pinzon, Gorove, Brancato

LAW-627 Creditors' Rights and Bankruptcy (3 hrs.) Creditors' rights, remedies, legal and equitable process in the enforcement of judgments, the Bankruptcy Code, the concomitant Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure, and review and study of cases illustrating the practical application of the Bankruptcy Code and the Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure. Corr, Leach (Fall)

LAW-628 Criminal Procedure II (3 hrs.) Advanced study in the commencement of formal proceedings, the adversary system, and trial. Topics include bail; decision whether to prosecute; grand jury; preliminary hearing; speedy trial; joinder and severance; coerced, induced, and negotiated guilty pleas; discovery and jury trial; and double jeopardy. Bair, Barbera, Grohovsky (Spring)
Prerequisite(s): Criminal Procedure I (LAW-508).

LAW-629 Environmental Law (3 hrs.) An overview of environmental law with particular emphasis on the administrative law background; the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended; the governance of public lands; and air and water pollution control. Wallace, Breen, Lubbers (Fall, Spring)

LAW-630 Regulation of Energy (2 hrs.) The development, pricing, and delivery of energy resources, including oil, gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy; and the environmental aspects of energy development. Burke, Day, Collins

LAW-632 Law and Economics (3 hrs.) Overview of basic microeconomics, including assessment of efficiency and equity logic; Coase Theorem; evaluation of incentive models, risk allocation, and aversion. Applications of economic analysis to diverse legal fields. J. Baker

LAW-633 Evidence (4 hrs.) The law governing the proof of disputed issues of fact, functions of the court and jury, competence and examination of witnesses, standards of relevancy, privileged communications, illegal evidence, hearsay rule, best evidence rule, parol evidence rule, presumptions, and judicial notice. Aaronson, Jones, Rice, E. Correia, Jeffress, Katriel (Fall, Spring)

LAW-634 Legal Aspects of Foreign Direct Investment (3 hrs.) Considers the ways in which developing countries seek to control and structure international investment, trade, and financial transactions. Topics include the international framework for international transactions; development and trade institutions; promotion, protection, and divestment of foreign investments; structuring investment transactions; international lending; transnational enterprises; and trade-related aspects of foreign investments. Bradlow, Levinson (Fall)

LAW-635 National Security Law: International and National Issues (2 hrs.) Examination of theoretical approaches to national and international security from peace studies, international relations, and international law with an in-depth focus on the international law of conflict management, including norms of permissible and impermissible use of force; the law of war; international organizations such as the UN, the OAS, and NATO; arms control; norms for control of terrorism; the Nuremberg principles; and mechanisms for peaceful resolution of disputes. The course will also briefly survey intelligence and counter-intelligence law, national security and the First and Fourth Amendments, the War Powers Act, and the national security decision structure. Vladeck, Marcus, Borosage (Fall)

LAW-636 Family Law (3 hrs.) An overview of the definitions of family, marriage, and divorce; the economic consequences of divorce; child placement; constitutional doctrine affecting the family; state intervention in the family; and the impact of gender on family law. Polikoff, Burkstrand-Reid, Valdez (Fall, Spring)

LAW-637 Domestic Violence Law (2 hrs.) Explores historical, anthropological, sociological, psychological, and legal aspects of battering. Topics include criminal law and process, family law, and alternative dispute resolution. Considers the historical, social, and cross-cultural context of domestic violence; social and legal reform efforts on behalf of battered women; battered women who kill their batterers; and theory and practice regarding battered women. Stoever, Runge (Fall)

LAW-638 Juvenile Law: Children's Legal Rights (3 hrs.) Examines legal problems faced by children within the family, in foster care, in school, and in the criminal justice system. The class will consider legal issues such as formation of the family relationship, disintegration of the family through separation or divorce, propriety of state intervention in medical decision making affecting the child, authority of the state to remove a child from the home in cases of abuse and neglect, the state's response to a child's poverty or homelessness, the school's control over a student's freedom of expression, the school's obligation to offer the child an adequate education, and whether the death penalty should be applied to juveniles. Taylor, Schindler (Spring)

LAW-639 Federal Corporate Income Tax (3 hrs.) An examination of cases and materials pertaining to the Internal Revenue Code as applied to corporations and their shareholders; tax consequences of corporate formation; distributions; liquidations; and reorganization. Pike, Westbrook, Rothenberg (Fall, Spring)
Prerequisite(s): Federal Personal Income Tax (LAW-647).

LAW-640 Health Law (3-4 hrs.) Begins by examining basic assumptions about the fields of health care financing and delivery. The course then focuses on the four major pillars of health law: access, financing, quality, and personhood. In the area of access, topics include statutory and common law obligations of health care providers to render care and civil rights issues within the health care arena. In financing, topics include private insurance, government programs to finance care for specific populations, and efforts to control costs within public and private systems. In the field of quality, topics include definitions of quality, systems of measurement, informed consent and standards of care, and regulatory versus free-market approaches. Topics related to personhood include rationing of services and ethical decisions. The course concludes with an examination of health reform models. Chavkin, Glaser (Fall)

LAW-641 Federal Law on Indian Tribes (3 hrs.) Analyzes and challenges assumptions underlying the major themes in Indian law: that Indian tribes are not juridical entities in international law because their sovereignty is dependent on the United States government; that Indian tribal people have a ward-guardian relationship with the government arising from this dependent status; and that Indian tribal property is justifiably treated differently from other property. In addition to sources of federal law dealing with Indians, the class will examine tribal court opinions and the developing international law regarding rights of indigenous peoples. Rosser (Fall)

LAW-642 Entertainment Law (3 hrs.) Examines entertainment industry contracts, the entertainment industry, and related noncontract law. J. Kaufman, Rosenthal. Simson (Fall)

LAW-643 Federal Courts (3-4 hrs.) Focuses on the history, organization, jurisdiction, and operation of federal courts. Topics include the role of courts, as counter-majoritarian institutions, in protecting democratic rights. Frost, Vladeck (Fall, Spring)

LAW-644 Partnership Tax (3 hrs.) Primary attention is given to tax consequences resulting from the formation, operation, and liquidation of a partnership; distributions by the partnership to partners; the optional adjustment to basis of partnership property; and the transfer of partnership interests, either at the partner or the partnership level. Jewett (Spring)
Prerequisite(s): Federal Personal Income Tax (LAW-647).

LAW-645 Federal Estate and Gift Tax (3 hrs.) An introduction to the federal estate and gift tax. Problem material based upon the Internal Revenue Code, Treasury regulations, and judicial decisions. Pike, Edmisten (Fall)
Prerequisite(s): Federal Personal Income Tax (LAW-647).

LAW-646 International and Comparative Trademark Law (3 hrs.) Focuses on the international system regulating the protection of trademark rights. Introduces students to the principal international conventions in the field of trademarks and some bilateral treaties. The course will consider current problems in the international trademark arena in light of recent tendencies towards greater reciprocity; the emergence of new jurisdictional issues raised by the Internet; and such new rights as the right of publicity, anti-dilution, and appellations of origin. It will briefly consider comparative trademark law in terms of the differences in the registration process and problems in priority of rights and pay particular attention to trademark law in the European Union and efforts toward harmonization. Farley, Traphagen (Spring)
Prerequisite(s): U.S. Trademark Law (LAW-609) or Intellectual Property Law (LAW-670) or Unfair Trade Law (LAW-689) or permission of the instructor.

LAW-647 Federal Personal Income Tax (4 hrs.) An examination of cases and materials pertaining to the Internal Revenue Code as applied to individuals. Pike, Kempler, Rothenberg, Ventry (Fall, Spring)

LAW-648 Food and Drug Law (2 hrs.) An examination of the ways in which Congress, the FDA, and the courts have gone about regulating the food, drug, cosmetic, and medical device industries. The course will focus on the historical development of food and drug law, as well as on current issues involving, among other things, carcinogens and risk assessment in food safety; regulation of nutrition; and approval of new drugs, devices, and vaccines for infectious diseases. L. Grossman, Kearns, Lambert (Spring)

LAW-649 Trial Advocacy: Pretrial Litigation (2 hrs.) Through simulation exercises, students explore the pretrial process in federal civil litigation, including drafting, pleadings, conducting discovery, pretrial motions practice, summary judgment motions, and preparing trial briefs. Algeo, Boals, C. Day, S. Johnson, Lay (Fall, Spring)

LAW-650 Lawyers and Clients: Interviewing and Counseling (2-3 hrs.) Explores the lawyer-client relationship in the context of the essential lawyering skills of interviewing and counseling. Focuses on the theories underlying these skills and the application of theory in performing various lawyer and client roles in simulated exercises. Also examines the connection between clients and the "case" that lawyers present on their behalf and the allocation of power between lawyers and clients. B. Miller, Dinerstein (Spring)

LAW-651 Lawyer Bargaining (3 hrs.) Studies the lawyer's role in the resolution of disputes through nonadjudicatory processes such as negotiation, mediation, arbitration, and minitrial. The course focuses on theories underlying each form of dispute resolution and the lawyering skills necessary to implement effectively those processes. The lawyer's role and required skills will be explored from the dual perspective of the lawyer as advocate and as impartial dispute resolver. Milstein, N. Stein, D. Clark, Sharp, Twomey (Fall, Spring)

LAW-653 International Finance Law and Development Finance (3 hrs.) Examines the international borrowing and sovereign debt renegotiation processes. Focuses on key policy and legal issues in negotiating and structuring international borrowing transactions and in current issues in the international debt crisis. Bradlow (Fall)

LAW-654 Government Contracts (3 hrs.) The fundamental law of federal government contracts, basic theory of public contracting, authority, policies and limitations, procurement procedures, contract types, cost and price prin ciples, remedies, claims procedures, and extraordinary remedies. Carroll, Harty (Fall)

LAW-655 Immigration and Naturalization Law (3 hrs.) The U.S. immigration system; numerical limitations and exceptions; preference immigrants; labor certifications; temporary workers; treaty investors; business visitors; foreign students; exchange aliens; visa procedures; documents; exclusion and deportation; pardons; judicial recommendations against deportations; waivers; adjustment of status to permanent resident; U.S. citizenship through parents; naturalizations; and loss of citizenship. Ahmad, Elder, Maggio, Vu Bain, McConnell, Peters, Vanison (Fall)

LAW-656 Asylum and Refugee Law (3 hrs.) Explores law, moral obligations, and national sovereignty, and the ways in which the interplay of these forces results in the making of U.S. asylum law and policy. Topics include review of the debate over the causes of refugees, the evolution of international legal refugee protection, and the extent to which Congress sought to make U.S. asylum law comport with U.S. international obligations. The course provides an understanding of the policy considerations underlying asylum law, review and critique of prevailing asylum law, and litigation issues in asylum removal proceedings and on appeal. Cooper, Wadhia (Spring)

LAW-657 International Trade Law (3 hrs.) This course analyzes the U.S. and multilateral legal regime (WTO) for regulating international trade in goods, services and intellectual property. The course begins with a brief introduction of international trade theory. It then examines the U.S. constitutional aspects of international economic relations and the legal structure of the WTO and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). It next analyzes specific aspects of international trade regulation, including tariffs, quotas, and non-tariff barriers; the most-favored-nation obligation; free trade areas and customs unions; national treatment obligation; trade and environmental policies; escape clauses, safeguards; and adjustment policies; dumping; subsidies and countervailing duties; and U.S. retaliation against “unfair” trade practices. Ala'i (Fall, Spring)

LAW-658 Insurance Law (3 hrs.) Life, accident, and property insurance; the insurance contract, insurable interests; rights of beneficiary; insured's assignee; creditors; tax aspects; method of settlement; rights and powers of insurer; and insurance regulations as administered by state agencies. Gallozzi

LAW-659 Law of the European Union (3 hrs.) Analysis of the Treaty of Rome and other relevant legal instruments and the major institutions and characteristics of European Union law; basic freedoms of the treaty, including free movement of persons, goods, services, and capital; and European Union competition law, which investigates restrictive agreements, exemptions, abuse of dominant position, notification, group exemptions, and commission investigations. Nicola, Bree

LAW-660 International Law (3 hrs.) The rules governing the conduct of states inter se and their relations with individuals and legal entities; jurisdictional concepts; the status, application, and litigation of international law rules in U.S. courts; sovereign's immunity; recognition; international agreements; the Law of the Sea; human rights; and international claims and adjudications. Chuang, Goldman, Orentlicher, Vorkink (Fall, Spring)

LAW-661 International Business Transactions (3 hrs.) How the international and U.S. domestic legal systems relate to structuring international business transactions. The course begins with an overview of the roles of lawyers, multinational enterprises, national courts, arbitrators, and international organizations, e.g., GATT and the IMF, in facilitating capital movement. The course then moves to a series of transactional problems in foreign investment, including distributorships and licensing technology, establishment of foreign operations, organization of joint ventures, negotiation of development agreements, and loans to foreign sovereigns. Ala'i, K. Anderson, Frank (Fall, Spring)

LAW-662 International Organizations and Multinational Institutions (2 hrs.) Regional and worldwide structures concerned with political, economic, social, and functional objectives; their impact on developed and less-developed countries; and their potential for promoting social and economic progress. Selected international organizations are studied in depth. Gorove, Orentlicher (Fall)

LAW-663 Jurisprudence (3 hrs.) Concentrates on the linkage between theory and practice in legal reasoning, legal education, and judicial decision making with the aim of demonstrating connections to philosophy and social theory. Theories are applied to particular cases both in class and in written assignments. Dodd, J. Anderson, Lindsay (Fall, Spring)

LAW-664 Employment and Labor Law: The Employment Relationship (3 hrs.) Examines the legal issues that arise at various stages of the employment relationship. The course begins by considering the history of employment and labor law and the current economic, demographic, and technological developments that are changing the way work is organized and creating new challenges for the law. Following this introduction, students systematically proceed through the issues that arise in hiring; regulating the terms and conditions of employment during the employment relationship; and discharge and termination. Carle, Seltzer (Fall)

LAW-665 Employment and Labor Law: Workers and the Law (3 hrs.) Focuses on employee rights and the implications both within and beyond the workplace of recognizing or not recognizing those rights. The course begins with a consideration of unjust dismissal, concentrating on its quasi-tort dimensions, with some special attention to whistleblower protections. Students then consider basic Title VII doctrine, emphasizing theories of actionability; harassment, emphasizing conceptions of wrong and employer responsibility; workers compensation, emphasizing differences from and relationship to tort law; and the National Labor Relations Act, emphasizing organizational rights, penalties, and legal and illegal economic pressure from employer and employee sides. Datz (Fall, Spring)

LAW-666 Employment Rights Law (2 hrs.) Introduces law and policy issues pertinent to private sector workplaces. Topics include worker privacy, family medical leave, plant closing and worker retraining law, company unions and labor-management cooperation, relations between unions and their members, rights of the disabled, and other issues in private employment relations. Herrnstadt (Spring)

LAW-667 Law in the Information Society (3 hrs.) Examines holistically the treatment of information by law and lays out the main legal, economic, and political models for the ownership and control of information. The overall theme of the class is that the "information economy" is now a fact rather than science fiction and that the same series of issues is confronted in each new area of information regulation, e.g., privacy and confidentiality concerns versus free speech concerns. Bouganim (Spring)

LAW-668 Employment Discrimination (3 hrs.) A survey of the major federal statutes prohibiting discrimination in the workplace, with special emphasis on practical problems encountered in litigation. The primary focus is on Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and race discrimination. Discrimination on the basis of age, sex, national origin, or handicap will also be considered. Topics include statutory scope and coverage, establishing liability, defenses, remedies, affirmative action, and enforcement procedures. Carle, Ventrell-Monsees (Fall, Spring)

LAW-669 Worker Rights in the Global Economy (2 hrs.) The field of global worker rights is newly emerging, multifaceted, and rapidly changing. Its essential rationale is that worker rights constitute an increasingly prominent problem in the evolving global economy. This course touches upon themes in trade theory, development theory, human rights, labor rights, and other fields. Topics include trade policy and development strategies as they relate to worker interests; the NAFTAlabor agreement; international, humanitarian, and worker rights; labor standards in U.S. trade law; protections for women, child, and migrant workers; the World Bank, IMF, and worker rights; corporate codes of conduct; and Europe's Social Charter. Levinson (Fall)

LAW-670 Intellectual Property Policy and Law (3 hrs.) Examines the fundamental policies animating intellectual property jurisprudence and the extent to which "intellectual property" is "property." The course explores the underlying policy goals and conflicts internal and external to intellectual property. It also considers the responsibilities of various intellectual property agencies and courts and the relationship between state and federal governments, including the extent to which the efforts of state judges and legislatures to regulate intellectual products might be preempted by federal law. Primary emphasis is on the interrelations of all intellectual property protections; however, students also will study the basic principles and legal rules governing idea protection, the right of publicity, trade secrets, unfair competition, copyrights, trademarks, and patents. In addition, the course treats important areas of proprietary rights such as dilution and moral rights. No technical background is expected or required. Farley, Bouganim (Spring)

LAW-671 Land Transfer and Development (3 hrs.) Examines the real estate transaction and conveyancing process; real estate brokers and listing agreements, tort and contract liabilities, fiduciary duties, and entitlement to commissions; the Statute of Frauds; contracts of sale; down payments and deposits, contingency clauses, risk of loss provisions, time for performance, attorney review clauses, marketable title provisions, and contract remedies; deeds: short- and long-form deeds, legal descriptions, canons of construction, and title covenants and warranties; escrows: agreements and instructions, procedures, and agency duties; title assurance: title searches, recordings acts, abstractors' certificates, title insurance policies, state statutes promoting the marketability of titles, curative statutes, and Torrens Acts. Also examines mortgages, deeds of trust, and land finance: the loan underwriting and appraisal process, loan commitments, the secondary market for mortgages, alternative mortgage instruments, and mortgage substitutes; mortgage notes: prepayment covenants, transfer of the note and mortgage; defaults and acceleration of debt; the right to reinstate and redeem the debt, receivers and other pre-foreclosure, real estate bankruptcies, loan workouts, and the environmental law aspects of real estate transfer and finance. Burke, Mark (Fall)

LAW-672 Law and Accounting (2 hrs.) Basic accounting principles, role and responsibilities of the independent auditor, expectations of users of financial statements, recognition and realization, valuation, timing of costs, leases, delineation of creditors' and stockholders' rights, necessity for disclosures, concepts of materiality and role of the SEC in accounting law. Mahoney (Fall)

LAW-673 Remedies (3 hrs.) Basic principles in damages, equity, and restitution. Application of those principles to torts and breach of contracts. Kovacic-Fleischer. Hutchinson (Spring)

LAW-674 Law of Professional Sports (2 hrs.) An introduction to legal and business aspects of the sports industry. The course will examine the structure of professional sports, including the interrelationship of leagues, clubs, and individual athletes and their representatives. Antitrust, labor, and contract law principles will be discussed, as will practical aspects of practicing law in the professional sports industry. Topics also will include negotiating and drafting contracts and ethical considerations in representing the professional athlete, {Shatsky (Spring)

LAW-675 Judicial Assistance in Transnational Litigation (3 hrs.) Review of U.S. law and practices relating to procedural steps taken abroad in aid of domestic litigation: service of judicial documents; taking of testimony; obtaining evidence; and authentication of foreign documents. Comparison of U.S. practices with those of foreign states: the role of attorneys and judicial officers; the concept of judicial sovereignty; and foreign blocking legislation. Introduction to the work of the Hague Conference on Private International Law and the Inter-American Conferences on Private International Law. Study of the Hague and Inter-American Conventions on judicial assistance to which the United States is a signatory. Survey of domestic and foreign cases under the Hague Conventions. Epstein (Spring)
Prerequisite(s): Prerequisites: Civil Procedure I and II (LAW-501, LAW-502) and Evidence (LAW-633).

LAW-676 Gender and the Law (2-3 hrs.) This course will provide students an introduction to how concepts of sex and gender interact with the law in the United States and internationally. Students will focus on how feminist movements and anti-feminist forces use law to challenge or reinforce gender norms. In each class, students will examine examples of legal mechanisms (such as civil litigation, criminal prosecution, legislation, and international instruments) that enable or constrain the ability of women to participate in the labor force; make choices about reproduction, health, and family life; protect themselves from violence; care for their families; access such resources as land and wealth; obtain political power; and agitate for change. Kraiem

LAW-677 International Litigation and Arbitration (3 hrs.) Focuses on private international law, linking the institutions and enforcement of international arbitration and litigation. Topics covered include public policy and foreign causes of action; embargoes and exchange controls; the U.S. Supreme Court and jurisdiction to adjudicate; jurisdiction of courts and international commercial transactions; property as a basis of jurisdiction; forum non conveniens; enforcement of foreign judgments; and discovery of information located abroad. D. Epstein (Spring)

LAW-679 State Responsibility for the Protection of Foreign Investment (3 hrs.) Focuses on the results, in terms of state responsibility, of an illegality committed against an alien, particularly with respect to the taking of property and property rights. The course considers ways in which an illegality can be redressed and actions that may be taken to seek redress of such an illegality. It concentrates on the means for the settlement of disputes and the protection of foreign investment, particularly from the perspective of operations of the World Bank Group (the World Bank, International Finance Corporation, Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency [MIGA], and International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes [ICSID]). Perera

LAW-680 Law of the American Political Process (3 hrs.) Examines federal constitutional and statutory law governing the American political process. The purpose of the course is to define the basic constitutional principles of the American democratic system, master the essential rules of federal campaign and election law, and describe different potential theories of democracy as they have emerged in American legal history. Topics include the right to vote, legislative apportionment, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, political party primaries and procedures, ballot access and candidate qualifications, the Voting Rights Act of 1982, campaign finance and campaign speech and their relationship to the First Amendment, political action committees (PACs), political broadcasting, media access, and political patronage. Raskin, DeManiris, Posner (Spring)

LAW-681 International Wildlife and Biodiversity (3 hrs.) Considers the fate of the world's wildlife and biological heritage, from whales and bacteria to rain forests and coral reefs. This course surveys the most important international agreements on the protection of species, habitats, and ecosystems, such as the new Convention on Biological Diversity. It reviews the international implications of selected domestic laws, which will be examined within their scientific, economic, political, and cultural contexts. Students also explore the relationship these laws have to other fields of law, including human rights, indigenous peoples' rights, trade, and intellectual property. Hunter (Spring)

LAW-683 Media Law (3 hrs.) Examines the relationship between the news media and the law, including the First Amendment and a variety of federal and state statutes. Topics include libel and a number of related privacy torts; a broad array of issues related to news gathering; prior restraints; business regulation of the news media; and other timely problems. Varona, Wermiel, Monk (Fall)

LAW-684 Chinese Law (2-3 hrs.) Provides a basic understanding of the legal system in the Peoples' Republic of China. Among topics considered in comparison with U.S. common law are the Chinese legal tradition, the socialist feature of that legal system, and the newly developed modern Chinese foreign economic legal framework. Yu (Fall)

LAW-685 Oil and Gas Law (2 hrs.) Nature and ownership of oil and gas interests, conveyancing and leasing of hydrocarbon interests, royalties, implied covenants in oil and gas leases, pooling and utilization, Oil and Gas Conservation Commission practice, and oil and gas lease operational rights and restrictions. Burke, Day (Fall)

LAW-688 Patent Law (3 hrs.) Provides an introduction to issues of legal protection and incentives for technological innovation, focusing on the federal Patent Act, federal court decisions, Patent Office rules, and relevant provisions of international patent law treaties. Specific topics include the history and philosophic underpinnings of American patent law; why people seek patents and the economics of inventive activities; the patent application process; substantive requirements for obtaining patents; how patents are enforced; licensing of patented inventions and antitrust law considerations; and international patent protection. Sarnoff (Fall)

LAW-689 Unfair Trade Practices and Consumer Protection (2-3 hrs.) Survey of the variety of ways in which unfair trade practices are regulated, including federal regulation by the FTC, state prosecution, private litigation, and self-regulation. The course covers unfair business practices other than combinations in restraint of trade. I. Baker (Spring)

LAW-690 Education Law (3 hrs.) Examines elementary and secondary education. The initial focus is the power of the state to compel a child to attend school and the constitutional and statutory framework within which the state regulates schooling. The course examines the educational opportunities an individual is entitled to receive from the state as embodied in federal and state constitutions and statutes. Concepts of equal education opportunity; equal resources; equal treatment regardless of race, sex, or handicap; and equal outcomes are analyzed. Uses and misuses of social science research in shaping legal outcomes also are examined. Gross, Kennard, Khalid (Spring)

LAW-691 Sex-Based Discrimination (3 hrs.) The application of the Constitution, Title VII, Title IX, and the Equal Pay Act to discrimination against men and women; historic, social, economic, and psychological factors. Kovacic-Fleischer, Burkstrand-Reid, Levin (Fall, Spring)

LAW-692 Antitrust Law (3-4 hrs.) Basic antitrust law, with no involvement in general regulatory matters, monopolization, vertical and horizontal restraints, and merger analysis. J. Baker, May (Fall)

LAW-693 Advanced Antitrust (2-3 hrs.) Recent Supreme Court developments; assessment of federal agenda; application to regulated industries, the professions, intellectual property, trade associations, and franchising; application in international markets and vertical restraint guidelines. J. Baker, May (Spring)

LAW-694 Criminal Trial Advocacy (3 hrs.) Controlled simulation clinics in which trial litigation skills development is patterned on litigation practice in the federal courts. Students participate as prosecutors and defense attorneys. These student attorneys are responsible for preparation and trial presentations, including developing case theory; trial tactics; and conduct of cases to verdict, including suppression motions, impaneling juries, opening statements, direct and cross-examination of witnesses, and closing arguments to jury. Aaronson, Austin, Creighton, Fredrickson, D. Gansler, Helfand, Sherman, P. Stein, Judge Algeo, Judge Beard, Judge Cave, Judge Christian, Judge Mason, Judge Raker, Judge Rupp, Judge Woodward (Fall)
Prerequisite(s): Criminal Law (LAW-507).
Corequisite(s): Criminal Procedure I (LAW-508) and Evidence (LAW-633) are required as a prerequisite or a corequisite.

LAW-695 Civil Trial Advocacy (3 hrs.) Trial skills and techniques are learned through controlled simulation clinics patterned on civil litigation practice in the federal courts. Student attorneys are responsible for preparation and trial presentations, including developing case theory, planning and implementing strategy, making opening statements, examining and cross-examining witnesses, introducing exhibits, arguing motions, and making closing arguments. Aaronson, Fredrickson, Karl, P. Sherman, P. Stein, Judge Beard, Judge Cave, Judge Miller, Judge Raker, Judge Rupp, Judge Woodward (Spring)
Prerequisite(s): Civil Procedure (LAW-501).
Corequisite(s): Evidence (LAW-633) may be a prerequisite or corequisite.

LAW-697 Wills, Trusts, and Estates (4 hrs.) Case and statutory law regarding trusts and wills; the creation and termination of trusts; contemporary use of the trust device; constructional problems of trusts; the making and execution of wills; testamentary capacity, character, and intent; revocation, ademption, abatement, and lapse; and property rights of surviving spouse. Abravanel, Bridgewater, Edmisten (Fall, Spring)

LAW-698 International and Comparative Copyright (3 hrs.) A survey of the multinational and bilateral agreements which govern the enforcement of copyrights across national boundaries. Explores the similarities and differences which exist between U.S. copyright and other developed countries, copyright in developing countries, and the problems of enforcing the rights of American copyright owners overseas. Jaszi (Spring)
Prerequisite(s): Copyright (LAW-623).

LAW-699 International and Comparative Antitrust (3 hrs.) The substantive underpinnings of U.S. antitrust laws and policy in international commerce, the reach of antitrust jurisdiction asserted by the United States, the legal and policy bases for foreign government reaction to that jurisdiction, and other comparative antitrust issues. W. T. Miller (Spring)

LAW-724 Domestic Banking (2 hrs.) The structure and regulation of the U.S. banking system; traditional and innovative forms of banking; the role of bank holding companies; lending limitations; usury; reserve requirements; relations between banking and the securities industry; and the effects of the National Banking Act, the Federal Reserve Act, the Glass-Steagall Act, and the Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act. Students may register for this course or the seminar on Banking Law and Regulation (LAW-857) but not for both.

LAW-727 International Banking (2 hrs.) The legal aspects of foreign exchange, eurodollars, international loan agreements, letters of credit, and aspects of U.S. and foreign banking supervision. Comizio

LAW-730 Land Use Planning and Practice (3-4 hrs.) The law of land use controls: Euclidian zoning, the role of the comprehensive plan, the urban planning process, variances, special exceptions, subdivision regulations, rezoning, nonconforming uses, growth controls, exclusionary zoning, inclusionary zoning remedies, civil rights challenges to zoning, permit moratoria, aesthetic zoning, historic districts, historic preservation, takings, inverse condemnation, due process challenges to zoning, and vested rights in zoning. The practice part of this course involves student presentations, moot court style, of several land use cases in simulated form before a hearing examiner. Burke, Delaney, Orens (Fall)

LAW-750 Special Education Law (3 hrs.) Teaches how to resolve disputes arising under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) through mediation and due process procedures. Current issues in special education law are analyzed. These include the definition of an appropriate education and the concept of least restrictive environment (LRE). DuBow (Fall)

LAW-804 Islamic Law (2 hrs.) Focuses on the origins of Islamic law, its sources, and the various schools of jurisprudence. Students will consider several substantive areas of Islamic law, including constitutional law, contract law, tort law, property law, banking law, crime and punishment, family law, and successions and wills. Mattar, Natour (Spring)

LAW-808 International Business and Human Rights (2 hrs.) Examines the policies underlying various regulations of transnational business practices designed to promote respect for internationally protected human rights and explores potential conflicts between those policies and corporate business objectives. Students also analyze the appropriate limits of restrictions on overseas corporate practices. Orentlicher, Gorove (Spring)

LAW-809 The United States Trade Regime (3 hrs.) Provides thorough exposure to the U.S. trade regime. Course coverage includes the legal (including constitutional) framework underlying U.S. participation in trade initiatives; the practical realities of power-sharing in the trade field between the political branches of the U.S. government; the relationship between international obligations and U.S. law in the trade field; the limited but important role of the U.S. judiciary in adjudicating trade matters; the basic U.S. statutory and regulatory frameworks for regulation of imports and exports, as well as export promotion; the process by which discretionary determinations occur day-to-day in the many areas of trade regulation that are not tightly governed by law; and various federal-state issues in the trade field arising from the federal structure of the United States. While substantive WTO law is not included, the course does focus significant attention on U.S. implementation of WTO norms and commitments as well as U.S. participation, both offensively and defensively, in WTO dispute settlement proceedings. The course also covers several domestic U.S. laws and policies that are directly related to trade and concludes with a unit on practical aspects of advocacy work in the international trade field in Washington, D.C. Magnus and Nicely

LAW-810 Communications Law (2 hrs.) Provides an overview of legal and public policy issues in contemporary regulation of broadcasting, cable television, and other electronic mass media by the Federal Communications Commission and other federal agencies. The course includes consideration of First Amendment issues only as they affect regulation. J. Baker, Phillips (Fall)

LAW-811 U.S.-Israeli Law (2-3 hrs.) The Israeli legal system was initially based on the Common Law tradition, except in the area of personal law, where it derived from the Ottoman tradition. By the end of the twentieth century, the legal system in Israel developed into a Common Law system unique to the Israeli society, with some influences of the European civil tradition. The course compares and contrasts the American and Israeli systems. It focuses on the Israeli system, dealing with such issues as the presence of the constitution and the jury system in the U.S. and the absence of these characteristics from the Israeli system; the declaration of independence; the specialized court systems, such as the religious court system that is unique to Israel; the place of the judiciary in both systems; and other important differences. Gale

LAW-814 The Law and Popular Culture (3 hrs.) Examines the way in which American law is depicted in American popular culture, specifically in mass marketed narrative film, "entertainment" television, mass journalism, and popular literary fiction. The class will focus on a few questions: (1) Why is the law such a common topic in popular culture? (2) What does the depiction of the law in our popular culture tell us about the law? (3) What does that depiction tell us about the mass culture? (4) What does it tell us about the way that the masses view the law (and how does it affect that view)? (5) What might lawyers do differently given the popular depiction of the law and lawyers? Niles, Phelps (Spring)

LAW-815 Feminist Jurisprudence (3 hrs.) Feminist Jurisprudence will provide an opportunity to study the different strands of feminist theory. The course will examine the relationship of law to the experiences of women situated differently in the world; the relationship of sex and gender as reflected in and influenced by law; cultural images of women and men that both shape and are shaped by the law; and institutional and social structures and practices that perpetuate inequality or subordination. The course will also consider the interaction of feminist theories with other critical traditions, including Critical Race Theory, Social Theories of Power and Wealth, Cultural Studies, and Clinical Theory. Students may take the course for two or three credits, depending upon the scope of the project/paper they undertake. Shalleck (Fall)

LAW-824 Natural Resources, Energy, and the Environment (2 hrs.) Deals with the development of hard minerals, particularly coal. This course has three parts: the first part deals with the extraction and mining of minerals, mostly coal mining; the second deals with the environmental regulation of mining; and the third deals with the energy produced from coal. Mining law, environmental law, and energy law are the three subjects presented. Burke

LAW-825 Natural Resources Law: Wildlife (2 hrs.) Examines how society regulates the use of living natural resources. Students also study the major federal environmental statutes designed to protect living natural resources, including the Endangered Species Act and National Forest Management Act. The aim of the seminar is to understand better how the various factors influencing natural resource policy interact with and influence one in attempting to satisfy the different expectations within society over proper resources use. Topics include endangered species, whaling, forestry, fisheries, and national parks and wildlife refuges. (Spring)

LAW-833 International Regulation of Securities Markets (2 hrs.) This course will provide an introduction to the operation and regulation of securities markets in the context of modern international transactions, with an emphasis on U.S. and EU securities markets. At the end of the course, it is expected that students will have a solid grounding in the international structures that increasingly harmonize securities regulation throughout the world; the nature of international securities transactions and the legal framework in which they function; modern financial instruments that function on a global basis; and the major issues and challenges faced by the international securities markets and regulators resulting from the globalization of the securities markets, such as hedge funds. Using this groundwork, students should be able to continue their studies in depth in the various subtopics of the regulation of international transactions which interest them. Symonds

LAW-834 Public Health Law (3 hrs.) Focuses on measures intended to protect or improve the health of populations or the community, as distinct from the health of particular individuals. Public health law raises issues of federalism, privacy and other individual rights, criminal law, First Amendment law (particularly the commercial speech doctrine), and takings law. Particular attention is given to difficult policy issues raised by HIV/AIDS, the tobacco industry, the use of illegal drugs, and the threat of bioterrorism. These issues of public policy and legal doctrine also provide an opportunity to look at several fundamental questions underlying our legal system, society, and culture. Among these are justifications for and dangers of laws intended to protect people from the consequences of certain activities that are dangerous to them; social and economic determinants of ill health, including inequality, racism, sexism, and homophobia; and relationships between moral values, science, and the law. Bruner

LAW-839 Sales (2 hrs.) Covers the rules and principles of Uniform Commercial Code Article 2 governing sales of goods. It serves as both a review of major principles from first-year contracts and an introduction to commercial law and the rights and liabilities of parties to sales contracts in contemporary commercial contexts. Students consider the scope and policy objectives of UCC Article 2 as they learn to apply provisions of the code to problems involving a wide range of issues such as contract formation, warranties, and performance obligations. This course covers some aspects of the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods and UCC Article 5 (letters of credit) to expose students to legal and logistical issues that arise as goods are bought and sold across national borders. The course also covers finance leases under UCC Article 2A (leases); engages students in distinguishing sales, leases, and secured loans; and introduces students to general principles and objectives of the UCC. Hughes, Snyder

LAW-840 Secured Transactions (3 hrs.) Examines Uniform Commercial Code Article 9 governing secured transactions. It covers the law regarding loans that are secured by personal property and introduces students to basic principles of finance. In addition to learning rules for creation, perfection, and priority of security interests, students consider social and economic effects of secured transactions domestically and abroad and the policies embodied by UCC Article 9. The course also provides exposure to types of secured transactions that are crucial to finance and to economic development, including project financing, equipment leasing, accounts receivable financing, mezzanine lending, securitization, and purchase money security interests. The course also covers general principles of bankruptcy law relating to UCC Article 9. No prior knowledge of business, finance, or economics concepts is required or expected. Hughes, Snyder

LAW-844 Advanced Environmental Law: Liability and Torts (3 hrs.) Focuses on advanced issues in liability under federal environmental law, particularly advanced issues in Superfund, and an extensive survey of common law issues of environmental torts. In addition, the course surveys issues of environmental federalism, including commerce clause and choice of law issues arising in environmental cases. Breen

LAW-845 Cultural Property Law (2 hrs.) Provides an introduction to the legal protection of historic sites and artifacts by examining the application of such federal statutes as NEPA, the National Historic Preservation Act, the National Marine Sanctuaries Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the Native Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. The issues studied include the preservation and management of historic sites, archeological resources, Native American artifacts, and historic shipwrecks; and criminal, civil, and administrative remedies. Blanco

LAW-846 E-Commerce Law and Drafting (2 hrs.) Focuses on the practical legal and drafting issues facing developers, licensors, licensees, and users of computer software, hardware, multimedia works, and on-line networks. Topics include drafting and modifying a variety of contracts and agreements; copyright, patent, and trade secret protection; licenses and warranties; roles and responsibilities of system operators and service providers; and the regulation of emerging technology of electronic commerce. Effross

LAW-847 Appellate Courts and Advocacy (2-3 hrs.) Covers appellate advocacy in civil cases, with an emphasis on federal courts. The bulk of the course is devoted to brief writing and oral argument techniques. Also provides an overview of appellate procedure, including jurisdiction, finality, the collateral order doctrine, interlocutory appeals, mandamus, standards of review, and issue preservation and harmless error. Frost, A. Anderson, Gross, Norcross, Olderman, Sarshik (Fall, Spring)

LAW-849 Legal Drafting (3 hrs.) Has two primary focuses. First, it teaches the principles of preparing transactional (i.e., nonlitigation) documents. Students can expect to draft several contracts of varied length and subject matter, Second, the course provides opportunities for students to draft litigation pleadings, such as a complaint or an answer, to which they are not exposed in Legal Rhetoric (Legal Method). The emphasis is on hands-on exercises and individualized critique of student work. Risoleo (Spring)
Prerequisite(s): Legal Rhetoric: Writing and Research I and II.

LAW-851 Global Warming: Law and Policy (3 hrs.) Examines one of the most critical air and atmospheric issues of our time: global warming or climate change. Related areas, such as transboundary air pollution and ozone depletion, are also studied. Goldberg (Fall)

LAW-855 Patent Prosecution (2 hrs.) Focuses on the realities of the U.S. Patent Office and the specific issues relating to the preparing, prosecuting, and securing of a U.S. patent. The course is based on case law from the U.S. Supreme Court, Federal Circuit, Court of Customs and Patent Appeals, and Patent Office Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences. To prosecute patents properly and represent inventors before the U.S. Patent Office, knowledge of the above court decisions and how those decisions relate to each other in terms of similarities and inconsistencies is imperative. Webster, Lindeman (Spring)
Prerequisite(s): Patent Law (LAW-688)

LAW-856 Corporate Finance (3 hrs.) Introduces fundamental concepts of corporate finance, the financing of corporate activities, and the basics of the internal capital structure of the corporation. The course focuses on the legal aspects of finance and capital structure. K. Anderson
Prerequisite(s): Business Associations (LAW-611).

LAW-858 Aviation Law: Domestic and International Aspects (2 hrs.) Examines the legal framework for the international aviation industry, including the relevant multilateral agreements; the current debate over the future of bilateral aviation agreements and U.S. "open skies" policies; economic and competition rules governing the industry; airline alliances and other commercial arrangements; and international aviation safety, security, and liability issues. Devall (Spring)

LAW-861 Seminar: Economic, Social, and Cultural Human Rights (2 hrs.) A close examination of the content and enforcement of the rights to food, water, housing, education, health, "social security," and work, grounded in the provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. The course examines the increasing case law, both international and domestic, demonstrating the justiciability of these rights and the relationship of ESCRs to globalization and other economic issues. Wilson, Sutton (Summer)

LAW-872 Regulatory Law and Policy (2 hrs.) Considers business regulation as a way to address market failures, including natural monopoly, externalities, or problems arising from costly or asymmetric informa tion. The course focuses on pros and cons of alternative strategies for dealing with each type of market failure, including rate (price) regulation, incentive regulation (price caps), entry regulation, and deregulation in favor of competition. Although the course will employ economic analysis to evaluate how well various regulatory strategies solve market failures, it will go beyond the economics to look at the political and legal constraints limiting agency discretion and the way those constraints have changed over time. It also will analyze the costs and benefits of alternative strategies for addressing distributional issues like lifeline rates and universal service. J. Baker, Wise

LAW-873 Government Liability (3 hrs.) Examines the main theoretical stumbling block to civil litigation involving government employees and officials: the sovereign immunity doctrine. It will then focus on the three main statutory or jurisprudential exceptions to this immunity that relate to civil liability of government officials: the Federal Tort Claims Act, Section 1983 of the Civil Rights Act of 1871, and the line of cases, beginning with Bivens, that allow for law suits alleging the commission of constitutional torts by federal employees. The course will focus on the theoretical underpinnings of these three categories of litigation and how they affect the broader theoretical construct of governmental immunity. In addition, the course will provide a specific analysis of how these cases actually are handled and of the important issues and strategies that attorneys on both sides of these cases must face. Dodd, Niles

LAW-874 The Law of Venture Capital (3 hrs.) Introduces students to the interrelated problems arising in structuring venture capital and private equity transactions using transactional case studies. It encompasses the business, securities, tax, and other planning aspects of venture capital transactions in a holistic manner. K. Anderson
Prerequisite(s): Business Associations (LAW-611), U.S. Business Law (LAW-580), or equivalent course and one other business course in taxation, securities regulation, or corporate finance.

LAW-875 International Telecommunications (2 hrs.) Provides a comprehensive overview of the various actors, issues, and results of the evolution of the international telecommunications world. The course will examine how the industry and policy makers deal with the inherent tension between technology and regulation; the impact that the conflicts of a country's socioeconomic structure may have on its international telecommunications policy; and conflicts between telecommunications policies and rules of different countries.

LAW-878 Expert Scientific Evidence (3 hrs.) Addresses the interaction of science and the rules of evidence. It introduces particular scientific disciplines and technologies that are sought to be used at trial and considers the specific evidentiary concerns raised by the introduction of that technology. Katriel
Prerequisite(s): Evidence (LAW-633).

LAW-879 Investment and Trade Law of the Middle East (2 hrs.) Designed to provide an overview of the commercial laws of the Middle East from an international and comparative perspective. The course will focus on the legal aspects of doing business in the Middle East. Key areas of discussion include substantive and procedural rules under foreign investment and trade laws, joint ventures and other legal forms of establishing economic enterprises, contract negotiation and drafting, oil concessions, construction contracts, franchising agreements, commercial agency, labor law regulations pertaining to employment of foreign employees, and tax exemptions. The course also will address intellectual property protection and the enforcement of foreign judgments and arbitral awards in the Middle East. Mattar

LAW-897 Regulation in America: Origins and Expansion from the American Revolution to Modern Times (2-3 hrs.) Explores the often dramatically changing history of public regulation in America. The course examines important chapters in the developing scope, focus, methodology, and underlying philosophy of public regulation in American history and the varied factors prompting its expansion or contraction in particular periods. The course considers the opposition mounted against diverse forms of regulation, the judicial treatment of legislative and administrative regulatory efforts, and the practical and intellectual impact of major chapters in regulatory history. In the process of the review, the class assesses the variety of scholarly characterizations that have been offered of the longer run patterns of regulatory thinking and practice, from those emphasizing a dominant tradition of private property rights protection to those, conversely, asserting a powerful, if sometimes overlooked, tradition of strong public regulation stretching back to the founding of the country. May (Spring)

LAW-920 Biotechnology and the Law (3 hrs.) Considers the state of biotechnology, its successes, problems, and promise. It presents an overview of regulatory, legal, political, and ethical considerations of this new technology based on the manipulation and transfer of genes. The focus will be on both the coordinated regulatory framework in the United States and possible overlapping and occasionally conflicting activities of the Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Drug Administration, National Institutes of Health, and Department of Agriculture. The course will consider developing case law. Also, it will examine the international regulation of biotechnology; the human genome project, including {issues of privacy, confidentiality, and genetic information; and the implications of biotechnology for intellectual property/patent law. The course will examine the legal and regulatory complexities in the United States because biotechnology is not regulated by any single law or any one federal agency. W. Cohen (Fall)

LAW-921 Advanced Lawyering Skills (2 hrs.) Provides controlled simulation of many tasks young lawyers will be expected to perform and reinforces the importance of being able to work alone or with other lawyers and maintaining a relationship with adversaries. Students will further develop the skills learned in the first year of law school by conducting efficient, accurate research into an unfamiliar area of the law and by drafting numerous documents. In addition, students' skills in client counseling and settlement negotiation will be further refined. Mullem

LAW-922 International Private Equity (3 hrs.) Introduces private equity and venture capital outside the United States. Geographically, most of the focus is on Europe and emerging markets, particularly Latin America, Asia, and the former Soviet Union. The first part of the course provides a general introduction to the venture capital business, which incorporates a brief historical background, an overview of the major participants in the business, and an introduction to the legal structures employed, Second, we analyze the "enabling environment" for private equity, including review of various factors within countries that either promote or impede the success of venture capital formation. The third major area of investigation concerns the process of fund formation and the issues involved in fund raising and investing in private equity funds in various areas of the world. {Fourth, we examine the investment process itself with a particular emphasis on the nature of the securities used in venture capital investments and the reasons for favoring one form of investment over another, Finally, we examine issues surrounding management and liquidation of private equity portfolios outside the United States. (Fall)

LAW-923 Employment Discrimination: A Case Model Approach (3 hrs.) Combines issues of employment discrimination (primarily Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964) and trial skills. The course is for students who are interested in learning about the disparate impact and treatment theories of Title VII liability and applying Title VII principles to a litigation setting. Recommended but not required: Employment Discrimination (LAW-668), Evidence (LAW-633), Civil Procedure (LAW-501, LAW-502). Ugelow, Both

LAW-925 Intellectual Property Management (3 hrs.) Encompasses a broad range of disciplines, including copyright, trademark, trade secret, commercial, and contract law. Basic principles of intellectual property (IP) formalities, infringement, licensing, and the use of copyrighted material on the Internet are addressed in the context of the problems under discussion. The course considers topics through an organizational IP audit, economic, and transaction-based approach, rather than legislative and judicial analysis. Wimbly-Martin (Fall)

LAW-926 Patent Acquisition and Exploitation (3 hrs.) Introduces students to the full range of legal issues that arise concerning the acquisition of patent assets, including creation, purchase, and in-licensing, and the subsequent exploitation of such assets, including sale, out-licensing, and litigation. Topics covered include the historical development of the patent system; how patents are drafted, prosecuted, and maintained; how a patent should be read to discover its strengths and weaknesses; the purchase and sale of patent assets on a stand-alone basis and within the context of a corporate transaction; the licensing in and licensing out; and the two sides of patent litigation. A major theme running throughout the course will be the role that public policy considerations play in shaping the development of the patent system and the practice of patent law in the real world. Casey (Fall)

LAW-927 International Trafficking in Persons (3 hrs.) Examines the legal issues related to the trafficking of persons from an international and comparative perspective. Topics include forced labor, the exploitation of immigrant females for domestic services, the sale of children and irregular intercountry adoption, and the sale of wives legalized by transnational marriages. Students will consider the international trafficking prohibitions of the various international conventions, analyze legislative texts of domestic trafficking laws of selected jurisdictions worldwide, and analyze the U.S. statutes prohibiting trafficking in human beings. Mattar (Spring)

LAW-929 Advanced Legal Research and Writing: Introduction to Legal Scholarship (2 hrs.) Introduces students to independent research methods that provide grounding in student-level scholarly writing and assist students in producing a high quality research-based written paper. B. Kaufman

LAW-931 Accounting Fundamentals and the Law (2 hrs.) A study of the basic accounting principles and their relation to the law. Students will learn about bookkeeping and recordation and basic business concepts, procedures, and dynamics. Topics include balance sheets, income statements, and accrual accounting; statements of cash flow; development of accounting principles and auditing standards; financial statement analysis; and shareholders' equity. Limited to students with no previous study or work in accounting. P. Wallace (Spring)

LAW-932 Environmental Impact Assessment Laws in Nation Building and Government Decision Making (3 hrs.) Analyzes practice and legal requirements for environmental impact assessments in a variety of legal contexts, including different U.S. counties and states and international organizations such as the UN, World Bank, and IMF. The focus is on U.S. federal law (NEPA), which requires the preparation of an environmental impact statement on proposals for federal action likely to have a significant effect on the human environment. Also included are ecosystem analysis, environmental justice, biodiversity, cumulative impacts, public and secret information, socioeconomic issues, terrorism, and public involvement. W. Cohen

LAW-933 Civil Rights and Remedies (3 hrs.) Federal courts have for many years struggled with the use of factors like race, sex, and disability when crafting remedies for civil rights violations. When there has been discrimination against groups or persons based on race, national origin, sex, or disability, courts have had to use these factors when providing remedies for that illegal conduct. Normally, under the law, race, national origin, sex, or disability should not be a basis for determining whether a person gets a job, education, housing, or any other governmental or private benefit or service. When courts must craft remedies for discrimination that has denied people benefits or services based on race, national origin, sex, or disability, courts have had to take care in crafting such remedies so as not to affect other people unfairly based on their race, national origin, sex, or disability (or lack of disability). The course will discuss ever-changing legal landscape of the permissible uses of race, national origin, sex and disability in the context of current civil rights litigation in areas such as school desegregation, affirmative action, employment discrimination, housing discrimination, voting practices, and police misconduct, as well as laws regarding the treatment of persons with disabilities. Gross (Fall)

LAW-965 Mediation Practice and Policy (3 hrs.) Provides students with a full exploration of the mediation process from representing a client to serving as a neutral mediator in a public or private setting, including the legal, ethical, and policy underpinnings of this relatively new process for settling conflicts. Students learn how to best advocate and negotiate on behalf of their clients in mediation; acquire mediation skills; learn the major legal rules and professional responsibility standards that have developed in this field; and explore policy issues raised in mediation settings. These include critiques regarding diversity in mediation, i.e., effects on women, minorities, the poor, and other marginalized communities and the abuse of corporate power in mandated consumer alternative dispute resolution. Sharp

LAW-968 Trial Advocacy: Evidentiary Foundations and Objections (3 hrs.) A practical course designed to enrich students' understanding of the Federal Rules of Evidence and their application in a trial setting. Through a series of in-class exercises, which simulate witness examinations, students will develop the skills to admit and exclude evidence at trial. The students play the roles of attorney, witness, and sometimes judge during in-class exercises. In addition, students will learn how evidentiary rules can be used strategically and how to reconcile ethical issues in the trial context. Boals

LAW-969 International Trade Law II (2 hrs.) The course builds upon what has been discussed in International Trade Law I by going beyond trade in goods to international trade in services (GATs) and trade aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS). The focus of discussions will be the WTO system while regional trading arrangements will be in terms of their relationship with the global trading system and can serve as focus for the papers. The latter part of the course focuses on the impact of international trade rules on governance (both domestic and global) including, but not limited to, its attempt to harmonize rules with emphasis on transparency in administration of trade regulation. It examines the conflicting values that the WTO system promotes (or is intended to promote), the different interests who seek to influence the WTO mandate and, given the legacy of colonialism, the implications of such efforts for North-South relations and global harmony. Ala'i (Fall)