Second Annual Freedom of Information Day Celebration
Speaker Bios

STEVEN AFTERGOOD

Steven Aftergood is a senior research analyst at the Federation of American Scientists. He directs the FAS Project on Government Secrecy, which works to reduce the scope of government secrecy and to promote reform of official secrecy practices. He writes Secrecy News, an email newsletter (and blog) which reports on new developments in secrecy policy for more than 10,000 subscribers in media, government and among the general public. In 1997, Mr. Aftergood was the plaintiff in a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit against the Central Intelligence Agency which led to the declassification and publication of the total intelligence budget ($26.6 billion in 1997) for the first time in fifty years. In 2006, he won a FOIA lawsuit against the National Reconnaissance Office for release of unclassified budget records. Mr. Aftergood is an electrical engineer by training (B.Sc., UCLA, 1977) and has published research in solid state physics. He joined the FAS staff in 1989. He has authored or co-authored papers and essays in Scientific American, Science, New Scientist, Journal of Geophysical Research, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, and Issues in Science and Technology, on topics including space nuclear power, atmospheric effects of launch vehicles, and government information policy. From 1992-1998, he served on the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board of the National Research Council. For his work on confronting government secrecy, Mr. Aftergood has received the James Madison Award from the American Library Association (2006), the Public Access to Government Information Award from the American Association of Law Libraries (2006), and the Hugh M. Hefner First Amendment Award from the Playboy Foundation (2004). The Federation of American Scientists, founded in 1945 by Manhattan Project scientists, is a non-profit national organization of scientists and engineers concerned with issues of science and national security policy.

RYAN ALEXANDER

Ryan Alexander joined Taxpayers for Common Sense (TCS) as president in November 2006, after serving on the board for more than seven years. Over the past two decades, Ryan has served as a non-profit advocate, manager, funder, and consultant to TCS. Previously, she served as Executive Director of the Common Cause Education Fund, the research and education affiliate of Common Cause, a consultant to foundations and advocacy organizations, a foundation program officer, and a litigating attorney. She co-founded the Appalachian Center for the Economy and the Environment, which she continues to chair, and sits on the board of directors of the Project on Government Oversight. Ryan received a bachelor's degree with honors from Wesleyan University in Middletown, Conn., a law degree from the University of Wisconsin at Madison, and was awarded a National Association for Public Interest Law Equal Justice Fellowship.

SCOTT ARMSTRONG

Scott Armstrong has been a Washington Post investigative reporter, a member of the board of several non-profits, and the founder of the National Security Archive. He currently is the executive director of the Information Trust and also works closely with the Aspen Institute. After commencing studies at Yale University in philosophy, Armstrong ended up going to law school and then working on Capitol Hill. While serving as a senior investigator for the Senate Watergate Committee, he conducted the interview with White House staff member Alexander Butterfield that led to the discovery of the President Nixon's White House taping system. Armstrong later conceived and founded the National Security Archive, a non-profit organization now housed at George Washington University that obtains and publishes declassified documents acquired through the FOIA, and he was one of the most prolific FOIA requesters ever. In 2001, he played an instrumental role in stopping the "Official Secrets Act," a provision that would have criminalized information disclosures by federal employees or whistleblowers for the first time in U.S. history. Together with Bob Woodward, he co-authored The Brethren, a ground-breaking account of the Supreme Court from 1969 through 1976, and he also was the principal researcher on The Final Days by Woodward and Carl Bernstein.>

JASON R. BARON

Jason Baron has served as the National Archives and Record Administration's' Director of Litigation since May 2000. In this position, he is responsible for overseeing all litigation-related activities confronting the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), including complex federal court litigation involving access to federal and presidential records in NARA's custody. For the twelve-year period prior to his appointment as Director of Litigation, Mr. Baron held successive positions as trial attorney and senior counsel with the Federal Programs Branch of the Civil Division of the Department of Justice, where he represented the Archivist and various Executive Office of the President components in Armstrong v. Executive Office of the President (the "PROFS" case) and Public Citizen v. Carlin (the GRS 20 case), and was counsel of record in litigation involving regulation of the Internet. Mr. Baron serves as NARA's representative to The Sedona Conference®, where he is a member of the Steering Committee for Working Group 1 on Electronic Document Retention and Production, and serves as Editor-in-Chief of The Sedona Conference Best Practices Commentary on the Use of Search and Information Retrieval in E-Discovery. He is also a founding coordinator of the TREC Legal Track, an international research project organized through the National Institute of Standards and Technology to evaluate search protocols used in e-discovery. Immediately prior to joining the National Archives and Records Administration, Mr. Baron spent the Spring 2000 semester as a visiting scholar at the University of British Columbia School of Library, Archival, and Information Studies in Vancouver, B.C., where he taught a course on cyberspace law and participated in the InterPARES project. Mr. Baron received a B.A. degree magna cum laude in 1977 from Wesleyan University, and a J.D. degree in 1980 from the Boston University School of Law. He has authored many publications and is a frequent public speaker on the subject of the federal government's obligations with respect to the preservation of electronic records. He currently also is an Adjunct Professor in the University of Maryland's graduate College of Information Studies.

GARY D. BASS

Gary Bass is the Founder and Executive Director of OMB Watch. Since founding the advocacy organization in 1983, he has testified before Congress, appeared on national television, addressed groups across the country, and written extensively on federal budgetary, program management, regulatory and information policy issues. Dr. Bass is well known for assisting nonprofit organizations in better understanding federal rules and policies affecting their organizations and constituencies. He has been selected as one of the Nonprofit Times Power and Influence Top 50 each of the nine years of its existence. In 2006, the award noted, "Nobody is better at divining what legislative fine print means to the charitable sector, getting the translation out to leadership and rallying advocacy. Nothing slips by him. Nothing." In addition to his 20-year leadership in promoting policies that make government information more publicly accessible, he was a prominent voice after the 9/11 terrorist attacks in preserving the public's right to know. As a result of increased secrecy since 2001, Dr. Bass helped form the OpenTheGovernment.org coalition, which brings together the advocacy and journalism communities to defend against the growth of secrecy and to advance open government policies and priorities.

Technology has played an important part in Dr. Bass' career. In 1989, prior to broad use of the Internet, he created RTK NET (the Right-to-Know Network at www.rtknet.org), a free online computer service to provide community groups access to government data about toxic chemicals released by chemical companies. More than 540,000 visitors a year use RTK NET to obtain environmental and health data. In 2006, Dr. Bass oversaw creation of FedSpending.org, a free online database for citizens to find out where more than $12 trillion in federal money goes and who gets it. He also chairs OpenTheGovernment.org, Citizens for Sensible Safeguards, and NonprofitAdvocacy.org. And he has served on many panels and advisory bodies, including as a member of the Advisory Board of the Collaboration on Government Secrecy.

Dr. Bass has served on the faculty of the Nonprofit Management Executive Certificate Program at the Center for Public & Nonprofit Leadership at the Georgetown University Public Policy Institute. He has taught classes at Johns Hopkins University, American University, Wayne State University, and the University of Michigan. Prior to founding OMB Watch, Dr. Bass was President of the Human Services Information Center, where he wrote a book and numerous articles on human services issues and published the Human Services INSIDER, a bimonthly newsletter on the politics of federal human services program. He has also served as: Director of Liaison for the International Year of Disabled Persons; consultant on several projects in special education and the mental health of children, youth, most notably, the preparation of the first annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Education of All Handicapped Children Act (P.L. 94-142); Special Assistant to Wilbur Cohen, then chair of the Michigan Governor's Task Force on the Investigation and Prevention of Abuse in Residential Institutions; Program Assistant at the Institute for Behavioral Research; and research roles in juvenile justice and community corrections. He received a combined doctorate in psychology and education in 1979 from the University of Michigan, along with the University's highest award for graduate student teaching and several awards for academic excellence. He received a Masters (1978) and BA (1975) from the University of Michigan.

THOMAS S. BLANTON

Tom Blanton is Director of the National Security Archive at George Washington University in Washington D.C. The Archive won U.S. journalism's George Polk Award in April 2000 for "piercing self-serving veils of government secrecy, guiding journalists in search for the truth, and informing us all." The Los Angeles Times (16 January 2001) described the Archive as "the world's largest nongovernmental library of declassified documents." Mr. Blanton served as the Archive's first Director of Planning & Research beginning in 1986, became Deputy Director in 1989, and Executive Director in 1992. He filed his first Freedom of Information Act request in 1976 as a weekly newspaper reporter in Minnesota; and among many hundreds subsequently, he filed the FOIA request and subsequent lawsuit (with Public Citizen Litigation Group) that forced the release of Oliver North's Iran-contra diaries in 1990. His books include White House E-Mail: The Top Secret Computer Messages the Reagan-Bush White House Tried to Destroy (New York: The New Press, 1995, 254 pp. + computer disk), which The New York Times described as "a stream of insights into past American policy, spiced with depictions of White House officials in poses they would never adopt for a formal portrait." He co-authored The Chronology (New York: Warner Books, 1987, 687 pp.) on the Iran-contra affair, and served as a contributing author to three editions of the ACLU's authoritative guide, Litigation Under the Federal Open Government Laws, and to the Brookings Institution study Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Since 1940 (Washington, D.C.: Brookings, 1998, 680 pp.). His articles have appeared in The International Herald-Tribune, The New York Times, The Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Boston Globe, Slate, the Wilson Quarterly, and many other publications. A graduate of Harvard University, where he was an editor of the independent university daily newspaper The Harvard Crimson, he won Harvard's 1979 Newcomen Prize in history. He also received the 1996 American Library Association James Madison Award Citation for "defending the public's right to know." Additionally, he is a founding editorial board member of freedominfo.org, the virtual network of international freedom of information advocates; and serves on the editorial board of H-DIPLO, the diplomatic history electronic bulletin board, and on the board of directors of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, among other professional activities.

WILLIAM J. BOSANKO

Jay Bosanko was appointed as the Director of the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) in April of 2008. As such, he is responsible for policy oversight of the Government-wide security classification system and the National Industrial Security Program. ISOO receives its policy and program guidance from the National Security Council and is a component of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). In this capacity, Mr. Bosanko also serves as the Executive Secretary of the Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel and the Public Interest Declassification Board and as the Chairman of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee. Mr. Bosanko has more than sixteen years of experience working issues related to the classification, safeguarding, and declassification of classified national security information, more than ten of which have been in positions of increasing responsibility at ISOO. On May 21, 2008, Mr. Bosanko was also appointed as the Director of NARA's Controlled Unclassified Information (CUI) Office. In this capacity, Mr. Bosanko carries out the responsibilities of NARA as the Executive Agent under the President's Memorandum of May 9, 2008, "Designation and Sharing of Controlled Unclassified Information." These responsibilities include overseeing and managing the implementation of the CUI Framework as well as serving as the Chairman of the CUI Council, a subcommittee of the Information Sharing Council. Prior to joining ISOO in December of 1998, Mr. Bosanko worked on NARA's Special Access and FOIA Staff and NARA's Records Declassification Division. Mr. Bosanko holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science from Susquehanna University (Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania).

DANIELLE BRIAN

Since 1993, Danielle Brian has been the Executive Director of the Project on Government Oversight (POGO), a nonprofit government watchdog. She frequently testifies before Congress and appears in major national news outlets, including ABC, NBC, CBS, Fox News, Washington Post, New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune, USA TODAY, and National Public Radio. Ms. Brian has led numerous investigations that have exposed wasteful government spending and helped precipitate policy reforms improving government programs. Under her watch, POGO prevailed in a lawsuit against then-Attorney General John Ashcroft for retroactively classifying FBI documents; forced the government to apply environmental standards to the super-secret Area 51 facility; forced the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to back down on its excessive secrecy regarding lax security at the Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant outside New York City; and has advocated for the rights of whistleblowers and other dissenters to have their voices heard. Before becoming executive director of POGO, Ms. Brian worked as a producer for television documentaries, as a policy analyst at the Arms Control and Foreign Policy Congressional Caucus, and as a research associate at POGO. Brian earned a master's degree in International Relations from the School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University in 1990.

THOMAS J. DOWNEY

Former Congressman Thomas J. Downey, Chairman of the Downey McGrath Group, Inc., founded this government affairs consulting firm in January, 1993. Downey McGrath is an independent, bipartisan firm. Tom is a hands-on leader who participates in the active management of each client's activities and personally advocates on their behalf. Since 1993 the firm has represented Fortune 500 companies, labor unions, non-profit organizations, trade associations, and coalitions in their dealings with the Federal government. He has worked on a wide variety of issues including taxes, health care, telecommunications, environment, and appropriations on their behalf. Tom and the firm have also successfully represented a number of clients on "transactional" issues with the federal government, such as the mergers of AOL and Time Warner, Chevron and Texaco and Exxon and Mobil.

Tom was elected to Congress in 1974 at the age of 25 (as the youngest Member of the 94th Congress) and served as the Democratic representative of the 2nd District of New York until 1993. He began his service on the Armed Services Committee and was later appointed to the House Budget Committee, and the Ways and Means Committee, where he served for fourteen years. On the Armed Services Committee, Tom was an adviser to both the SALT and START arms negotiations talks, and is a past president of Parliamentarians for Global Action, an international arms control organization. At Ways and Means, Tom championed mortgage revenue bonds, saving the state and local property and income tax deduction, and the earned income tax credit. He also served as the Acting Chairman of the Ways and Means Subcommittee on Human Resources for five years, where he was the chief House architect of the 1988 welfare reform legislation, the Family Support Act, and of landmark child care legislation. Tom also chaired the Subcommittee on Human Services of the House Select Committee on Aging from 1987 to 1993. In addition, he co-authored the original Superfund legislation, and later led efforts to expand Superfund. As a senior member of the Trade Subcommittee, he sponsored the legislation which created a Free Trade Zone with Israel. He played a critical role in GSP legislation, the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Act, and in the 1984 and 1988 Omnibus Trade Acts, particularly in the area of the intellectual property provisions.

Tom's leadership and record of success didn't end with his departure from Congress. In 1993, he was asked by President Clinton to lead the private-sector effort to build bipartisan Congressional support for the passage of the NAFTA enabling legislation and later was asked to head the bipartisan effort to pass the Uruguay Round GATT legislation. His success on trade matters continues to this day: In 2000 he was one of the leading lobbyists fighting for the passage of Permanent Normal Trade Relations with China. In 1992 Tom headed the HHS, HUD, and VA cluster of the 1992 Presidential transition, and was later appointed to the Bipartisan Commission on Entitlement and Tax Reform (the Kerrey Commission). During the 1996 and 2000 presidential campaigns, Tom assisted Vice President Al Gore in his debate preparation. Tom serves on the boards of the SEED Foundation, World Hunger Year, Council for A Livable World, the American League of Lobbyists, the Long Island Foreign Affairs Forum, and the Center for Social Gerontology.

STEVEN GARFINKEL

Steve Garfinkel enjoyed a highly distinguished career in federal service for more than 30 years, during which he held several leadership positions in the field of transparency and national security classification. From 1980 until his retirement in 2002, he was Director of the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO), located originally at the General Services Administration, then briefly at the Office of Management and Budget, and most recently at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). (ISOO receives its policy guidance from the National Security Council.) In that capacity, he also served as Executive Secretary of the Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel (ISCAP), which was created by President Clinton under Executive Order 12,958 in 1995, and he reported to a succession of five presidents. Ancillary to his role as the Director of ISOO, Mr. Garfinkel served as Chairman of the Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group (2000-2006), and subsequent to his retirement he was a presidential appointee to a four-year term (2004-2008) as a Member of the Public Interest Declassification Board.

Prior to his appointment as head of ISOO, Mr. Garfinkel served for almost ten years in the Office of General Counsel of the General Services Administration -- as the Chief Counsel for the National Archives and Records Service, Chief Counsel for Information and Privacy, and Chief Counsel for Civil Rights ñ where he was the lead agency attorney on the precedent-setting case of Fund for Constitutional Government v. National Archives & Records Service, which involved three-quarters of a million pages of Watergate Special Prosecution Force records. During his career he earned more than 25 written commendations or citations from Presidents G.H. Bush, Clinton, G.H.W. Bush, Reagan, Carter, and Ford, including the Presidential Rank Award of Meritorious Federal Executive. Mr. Garfinkel also received awards and commendations from many federal departments and agencies, and from non-government professional and service organizations. In 1989, the American Defense Preparedness Association presented him with its first "Security Man of the Year Award," and in 1999 the National Classification Management Society presented him with its "President's Award." Upon his retirement, he was presented with NARA's Lifetime Achievement Award by the Archivist of the United States and with a special Freedom of Information Act award by the Office of Information and Privacy at the Department of Justice. Mr. Garfinkel holds an A.B. with Distinction (1967) from George Washington University, a J.D. with Honors (1970) from that university's National Law Center (where he was a Trustee Scholar), and an M.A. in Teaching (2004) from Towson University. In his "retirement," he is a full-time teacher of Social Studies, Government Law, and Sociology at Albert Einstein High School in Kensington, Maryland.

JOHN IRONS

John Irons joined the Economic Policy Institute in 2007. His areas of research include the U.S. economy and economic policy, with an emphasis on federal tax and budget policy. He previously worked as the Director of Tax and Budget Policy at the Center for American Progress (2004-2007) and as a tenure-track Assistant Professor of Economics at Amherst College (1999-2003). He has also worked for the Brookings Institution (1995) and at the Federal Reserve Board of Governors (1992-1994). His academic publications have appeared in several journals including the Journal of Monetary Economics, Journal of Applied Econometrics, and the Review of Financial Economics. He is also co-editor of Testing Exogeneity, published by Oxford University Press. He has won several awards for his economics Web sites, including top-5 awards from The Economist and Forbes. He currently serves on the Committee on Electronic Publishing for the American Economic Association, and on the Board of Governors of the National Economists Club.

MICHAEL ISIKOFF

Mike Isikoff joined Newsweek as an Investigative Correspondent in June 1994. He has written extensively on the U.S. government's war on terrorism, the Abu Ghraib scandal, campaign-finance and congressional ethics abuses, presidential politics and other national issues. His book, Hubris: The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, and the Selling of the Iraq War, co-written with David Corn, was an instant New York Times best-seller when it was published in September, 2006. The book was hailed by the New York Times Book Review as "fascinating reading" and "the most comprehensive account of the White House's political machinations" in the run up to the war in Iraq. Ever since the events of September 11, Mr. Isikoff has broken repeated stories about the U.S. government's war on terror and won numerous journalism awards. His weekly online column "Terror Watch," co-written with Mark Hosenball, has become a "must read" for senior U.S. intelligence officials and won the 2005 award from the Society of Professional Journalists for best investigative reporting online. His June 2002 Newsweek cover story on U.S. intelligence failures that preceded the 9-11 terror attacks, along with a series of related articles, was honored with the Investigative Reporters and Editors top prize for investigative reporting in magazine journalism. He also was honored, along with a team of Newsweek reporters, by the Society of Professional Journalists for coverage of the Abu Ghraib scandal. For that coverage, Mr. Isikoff obtained exclusive internal White House, Justice Department, and State Department memos showing how decisions made at the highest levels of the Bush Administration led to abuses in the interrogation of terror suspects. He was also part of a reporting team that earned Newsweek the National Magazine Award for General Excellence in 2002, the highest award in magazine journalism, for their coverage of the aftermath of the September 11 terror attacks.

Mr. Isikoff's exclusive reporting on the Monica Lewinsky scandal gained him national attention in 1998, including profiles in the New York Times and The Washington Post and a guest appearance on "Late Show with David Letterman." His coverage of the events that lead to President Bill Clinton's impeachment earned Newsweek the prestigious National Magazine Award in the Reporting category in 1999. His reporting also won the National Headliner Award, the Edgar A. Poe Award presented by the White House Correspondents Association and the Gerald R. Ford Journalism Prize for Reporting on the Presidency. In 2001, he was named on a list of "most influential journalists" in the nation's capital by Washingtonian magazine. Mr. Isikoff also is the author of "Uncovering Clinton: A Reporter's Story," a book that chronicled his own reporting of the Lewinsky story and was hailed by a critic for The Washington Post-Los Angeles Times news service as "the absolutely essential narrative of the scandal with revelations that no one would have thought possible." The book, also a New York Times bestseller, was named Best Non-Fiction Book of 1999 by the Book of the Month Club.

Mr. Isikoff came to Newsweek from The Washington Post, where he had been a reporter since September 1981. There he covered the Justice Department and the Persian Gulf War, reported on international drug operations in Latin America and worked on the Post's financial news desk. Before joining the Post, he was a reporter with the now-defunct Washington Star. Mr. Isikoff graduated from Washington University with a B.A. in 1974 and received a Masters in Journalism from Northwestern University's Medill School of Journalism in 1976. Most recently, he was named a contributor to MSNBC.

SENATOR PATRICK LEAHY

Born in Montpelier, raised across the street from the Statehouse, and educated in Montpelier and Colchester, Patrick Leahy has spent most of his adult life working for Vermonters. After graduating from Saint Michael's College in 1961, he earned his Juris Doctor from Georgetown University Law Center in 1964. He then returned to Vermont to the private practice of law and then, for the next eight years, served as the State's Attorney in Chittenden County, where he gained a national reputation for his law enforcement work. In 1974, at the age of 34, he became the first Democrat who Vermonters have ever elected to the United States Senate, where he now ranks fourth in seniority. He serves as Chairman of the Judiciary Committee and of the Foreign Operations Subcommittee. He also serves on the Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Committee and on the Appropriations Committee, where he is a member of the Defense, Interior, Homeland Security, VA-HUD, and Commerce-Justice-State subcommittees.

As a senior member of the Agriculture Committee, Senator Leahy played instrumental roles in creating the Farmland Protection Program and the Milk Income Loss Compensation (MILC) program, and in extending the Conservation Reserve Program. He has been a long-time supporter of the organic movement and is often called the "father of organics." He helped Vermont's and the nation's organic industry grow from near obscurity when he wrote and passed the Organic Foods Production Act in 1990. The Leahy charter for organic agriculture has helped it grow into an $11 billion-a-year sector of the American economy. As the Chairman of the Agriculture Committee's Subcommittee on Research, Nutrition, and General Legislation, Senator Leahy champions effective child nutrition programs. He has developed bipartisan support for addressing the nation's obesity crisis and led efforts to implement hands-on nutrition education programs in our schools. He also reached across the aisle to coauthor legislation that would enable the Secretary of Agriculture to more efficiently control the sale of junk food and soft drinks in schools that participate in the federal School Lunch Program.

As the Chairman of the Judiciary Committee, Senator Leahy has authored, advocated, and enacted a wide range of anti-crime and anti-drug initiatives. He wrote the charter for the current federal grant program for the nation's first-responders, and Pat Leahy's all-state minimum for the program's formula has brought millions of federal equipment dollars to Vermont 's police, fire, and EMS units. In his Judiciary Committee role, Senator Leahy also gives Vermonters a leading voice in confirming nominations to the federal courts. The Framers of the U.S. Constitution gave the Senate an important role to play in ensuring that the federal bench would not simply be an arm of the Executive Branch, and Senator Leahy has consistently fought to keep the courts from becoming an extension of either political party. He points out that our independent federal judiciary is the envy of the world, and he fights to keep it independent.

Senator Leahy also is the co-chair of the Senate's 85-member National Guard Caucus. He has fought to improve access to health care, education, and retirement benefits for Vermont's citizen-soldiers and to make sure that they are treated equally with the active forces. In recognition of his service to our men and women in uniform, he has been awarded the George Washington Freedom Award from the Adjutants General of the U.S. Association, the Eagle Award from the Enlisted National Guard Association, and the Harry S. Truman Award for "sustained contributions of exceptional and far-reaching magnitude to the defense and security of the United States in a manner worthy of recognition at the national level."

Sometimes referred to as the "cyber senator," Senator Leahy was the second senator to post an official homepage on the Internet. Since its creation in 1995, the Leahy Senate website has often won awards as one of the Senate's best. His interest in technology also led him to co-found the Congressional Internet Caucus, which he co-chairs, and to spearhead efforts to expand broadband access to Vermont. Mindful of new hazards presented by the Internet, he is also a leader in the effort to protect intellectual property rights and privacy. Senator Leahy also is known as having been the leading champion of freedom of information in Congress over the past three decades, a vital role that he has played through both legislative reform and keen congressional oversight. Among his many honors and distinctions in that and other areas of public policy and law, he is the recipient of the Collaboration on Government Secrecy's 2009 "Robert Vaughn FOIA Legend Award."

GREG LEROY

Dubbed "America's chief whistle-blower" on state and local economic development subsidies, Greg LeRoy directs Good Jobs First, a national resource center promoting corporate and government accountability in economic development and smart growth for working families. With more than 25 years' experience, he is the author of The Great American Jobs Scam: Corporate Tax Dodging and the Myth of Job Creation (2005) and No More Candy Store: States and Cities Making Job Subsidies Accountable, and he was the 1998 winner of the Public Interest Pioneer Award. Good Jobs First (GLF) serves constituency-based groups and policymakers with research, training, consulting and testimony. GJF also includes Good Jobs New York (www.goodjobsny.org), Good Jobs First-Illinois, and the Corporate Research Project (www.corp-research.org).

DANIEL J. METCALFE

Dan Metcalfe joined the faculty of the Washington College of Law in 2007 as a Faculty Fellow in Law and Government upon retiring from a career in government service that began at the Department of Justice in 1971, and he now is an adjunct professor as well as Executive Director of the school's Collaboration on Government Secrecy. After a judicial clerkship and serving as a Justice Department trial attorney, he was appointed as a founding director of the Department’s Office of Information and Privacy in 1981. For more than a quarter-century, he guided all federal agencies on the governmentwide administration of the Freedom of Information Act, directly supervised the defense of more than 500 FOIA and Privacy Act lawsuits in district and appellate courts, testified before Congress on FOIA legislation, and met with representatives of nearly 100 nations and international governing bodies as they considered the development and implementation of their own government transparency laws. He became a career member of the Senior Executive Service in 1984, the youngest Justice Department attorney then and since to hold such a position, and also has been appointed as an Honorary Senior Research Fellow at University College London.

SEAN MOULTON

Sean Moulton is Director of Information Policy at OMB Watch, where he focuses on increasing government transparency with special attention to environmental information and right-to-know issues. One of his first jobs was as Environmental Researcher and Data Manager for the Council on Economic Priorities (CEP), manipulating and analyzing environmental information that is disseminated under the policies he now advocates. Prior to joining OMB Watch, Sean honed his lobbying and policy analysis skills as the Tax Policy Analyst at Friends of the Earth. His work experience also includes several years as a research fellow with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the Industry Sector Policy Division. Recent priority work at OMB Watch for Sean has included coordinating nationwide opposition to EPA's cutbacks to the Toxic Release Inventory and overseeing the development of FedSpending.org, a groundbreaking new Web site that allows users to easily search and browse trillions of dollars in federal spending. For years, OMB Watch has also operated the Right to Know Network (RTK NET), a Web site that provides public access to almost a dozen environmental databases. Sean will be helping to bring lessons learned from FedSpending.org to a redesign of the environmental database functions on RTK NET. He received a Masters of Public Policy degree from the University of Maryland and has a B.A. in Economics and English.

HAROLD C. RELYEA

Hal Relyea was a specialist in American national government with the Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress from 1971 until retiring in January 2009. In that capacity, he produced numerous major studies for Congress, including analyses of the office and powers of the president, executive branch organization and management, congressional oversight, and various aspects of government information policy and practice. He has testified before congressional panels on various occasions, and also recently appeared before a committee of the European Parliament. In addition to his CRS duties, Dr. Relyea has authored numerous articles for scholarly and professional publications in the United States and abroad. He is currently preparing a book on national emergency powers. His recently published titles include Silencing Science: National Security Controls and Scientific Communication (1994), Federal Information Policies in the 1990s (1996), The Executive Office of the President (1997), and United States Government Information: Policies and Sources (2002). He has served on the editorial board of Government Information Quarterly since its founding in 1984, and he has held similar positions with several other journals in the past. An undergraduate of Drew University, he received his doctoral degree in government from American University.

ADINA H. ROSENBAUM

Adina Rosenbaum is Director of the Freedom of Information Clearinghouse at the Public Citizen Litigation Group, in Washington, D.C., where she has practiced since September 2004. Ms. Rosenbaum received her undergraduate degree from Harvard University, graduating magna cum laude in 1998 and earning membership in Phi Beta Kappa. In 2003, she graduated from the New York University School of Law, where she was a member of the Order of the Coif and an editor of the New York University Law Review. Following law school, Ms. Rosenbaum clerked for the Honorable Martha Craig Daughtrey of the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. Her practice areas at the litigation group include general appellate litigation, open government, consumer safety, and first amendment issues. Many of her cases involve access to records under the Freedom of Information Act. Ms. Rosenbaum is admitted to the District of Columbia and New York bars, is an inactive member of the Massachusetts bar, and is admitted to practice before numerous federal courts.

DAVID SOBEL

David Sobel is Senior Counsel at the Electronic Frontier Foundation's Washington, D.C. office, where he directs EFF's FOIA Litigation for Accountable Government (FLAG) Project. He has handled numerous cases seeking the disclosure of government documents on privacy policy, including electronic surveillance, encryption controls and air-line passenger screening initiatives. He served as co-counsel in the challenge to government secrecy concerning post-September 11 detentions and participated in the submission of a civil liberties amicus brief in the first-ever proceeding of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review. David is co-editor of the 2002 and 2004 editions of Litigation Under the Federal Open Government Laws. He is a recipient of EFF's Pioneer Award (2003) and the American Library Association's James Madison Award (2004). David formerly was counsel to the non-profit National Security Archive, and in 1994 he co-founded the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC), where he directed FOIA litigation and focused on government surveillance and the collection of personal information. He is a graduate of the University of Michigan and the University of Florida College of Law.

THOMAS M. SUSMAN

Tom Susman is Director of Government Affairs at the American Bar Association, where his holds responsibility for a wide range of ABA activities here in Washington, D.C. Before accepting that position upon his "retirement" last year, he was a long-time senior partner in the Washington Office of Ropes & Gray, where his work included counseling, litigation, and lobbying on access to government information and privacy, in addition to his general legislative and regulatory practice. Tom has testified frequently on FOIA reform before Congress and authored a number of works on information and privacy. He advised Shanghai on open government information, wrote a chapter on Access to Documents in the European Union for an ABA publication, co-authored a BNA portfolio on business information, and taught classes and courses on the FOIA to government lawyers, government access professionals, and law students. He has also been involved in a number of freedom of information cases at the state and federal levels and before foreign tribunals. Currently also serving in the House of Delegates of the American Bar Association, he is also a member of the American Law Institute, Chairman of the National Judicial College, and President of the District of Columbia Public Library Foundation.

Before joining Ropes & Gray, Tom served on Capitol Hill as chief counsel to the Senate Judiciary Committee; prior to that he worked in the Office of Legal Counsel at the Department of Justice. He graduated from Yale University and received his J.D. from the University of Texas Law School. Among his many honors and distinctions, perhaps foremost among them is his receipt of the Collaboration on Government Secrecy's inaugural "Robert Vaughn FOIA Legend Award" at CGS's First Annual Freedom of Information Day Celebration in March 2008.

PATRICK D. VISCUSO

Pat Viscuso is the Associate Director of the Controlled Unclassified Information Office at the National Archives and Records Administration. He has eighteen years of experience working at all levels of government security, oversight, and policy organizations with an expertise in the major security disciplines related to the protection of national security information. Dr. Viscuso joined the Information Security Oversight Office in October, 2005 as a senior program analyst with responsibilities in the Department of Defense sector and has undertaken special projects dealing with Sensitive But Unclassified information, classified information sharing, information systems, and industrial security. Additionally, he co-chaired working groups whose memberships consisted of federal and non-federal participants. His work included lead responsibility for meetings of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee. Dr. Viscuso has a bachelor's degree from the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service (Georgetown University), a master's degree from Holy Cross (Brookline, MA), and a doctoral degree from The Catholic University of America (Washington, D.C.).