Collaboration on Government Secrecy ("CGS")
American University Washington College of Law

March 17, 2008

Speaker Bios


William Ferroggiaro serves as Policy Counsel and Governance Advisor for International Sustainable Systems, a Washington, D.C. consultancy, where he focuses on conflict prevention, government accountability, and citizen participation. He has more than 15 years' expertise as a practitioner and advocate for transparency and good governance. For more than a decade he directed the freedom of information program at the National Security Archive, an award-winning public interest group based at George Washington University. Among other responsibilities, he managed the organization's relations with federal agencies, co-authored two major audits of federal information policy, submitted comments on federal agency regulations and testimony to national commissions, and supervised the FOIA research of Archive staff. Ferroggiaro has served as an expert trainer for the U.S. Department of Justice Advanced FOIA Seminar and U.S. Department of State and Department of Energy programs.

Mr. Ferroggiaro's open government work has increasingly been focused abroad. In the U.S. he has briefed visiting delegations of the U.S. Department of Defense Partnership for Peace and U.S. Department of State's International Visitor programs and has trained investigative journalists for World Bank Institute seminars. Under the auspices of the U.S. Department of State or local host organizations, he has advocated for access to information and government transparency on four continents, among other activities, training Macedonia's new FOI commission, keynoting Canada's Treasury Board Secretariat access officer's conference, and training Romania's first public information officers. He has twice been elected president of the American Society of Access Professionals, where he coordinated and presented remarks at 'best practices' conferences and seminars, and he is an associate member of the Canadian Access and Privacy Association. Mr. Ferroggiaro has spoken at conferences of the Investigative Reporters and Editors, Freedom Forum, among others, and has appeared on programs of C-SPAN, Voice of America, BBC, and CBC television. He holds a B.S. in Political Science and B.S. in German from Santa Clara University, and an M.A. in International Affairs from American University.


Amanda Frost joined the faculty of WCL in 2004. She specializes in the federal court system and federal jurisdiction, civil procedure, statutory interpretation, and transparency in government. Prior to coming to WCL, Professor Frost was a staff attorney for Public Citizen, where she litigated cases in the federal courts of appeals and the U.S. Supreme Court. Professor Frost clerked for Judge A. Raymond Randolph of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, and she has consulted for the Open Society Foundation and USAID. In 2001, she was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship to study administrative law reform in the European Union.


Meredith Fuchs serves as the General Counsel to the nongovernmental National Security Archive at George Washington University. At the Archive, she oversees Freedom of Information Act and anti-secrecy litigation, advocates for open government, and frequently lectures on access to government information. She has supervised six government-wide audits of federal agency FOIA performance, including two released in 2007: "40 Years of FOIA, 20 Years of Delay: Oldest Pending FOIA Requests Date Back to the 1980s" and "File Not Found: Ten Years After E-FOIA, Most Agencies are Delinquent." She is the author of "Judging Secrets: The Role Courts Should Play in Preventing Unnecessary Secrecy," 58 Admin. L. Rev. 131 (2006), and co-author of "Greasing the Wheels of Justice: Independent Experts in National Security Cases," 28 Nat'l Sec. L. Rep. 1 (2006). Previously she was a partner at the Washington, D.C. law firm Wiley Rein & Fielding LLP. Ms. Fuchs served as a law clerk to the Honorable Patricia M. Wald, U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, and to the Honorable Paul L. Friedman, U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. She received her J.D. from the New York University School of Law and her B.Sc. from the London School of Economics and Political Science.


Lydia Griggsby is the Chief Counsel for Privacy and Information Policy for the Senate Judiciary Committee. This unique position calls for Ms. Griggsby to provide legal and policy advice to Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Patrick Leahy on a wide range of issues at the intersection of privacy, the Freedom of Information Act, freedom of the press, and civil liberties. Ms. Griggsby was the chief Senate counsel to negotiate the first reforms to FOIA in more than a decade -- the OPEN Government Act of 2007 -- which the President signed into law on December 31, 2007. She has also provided legal advice on issues such as journalist shield legislation, data privacy and security, health information privacy, and cyber crime.

Ms. Griggsby has been a government attorney throughout most of her legal career, serving six years as an Assistant United States Attorney with the United States Attorney's Office for the District of Columbia and three years with the Civil Division of the United States Department of Justice. Prior to her appointment to the Department of Justice, Ms. Griggsby was an associate with the law firm of DLA Piper. Ms. Griggsby is a graduate of the Georgetown University Law Center and the University of Pennsylvania.


Nathaniel Heller is Managing Director of Global Integrity, an off-shoot of the Center for Public Integrity that tracks governance and corruption trends around the world. He joined the Center for Public Integrity in 1999, handling both public service and government accountability issues. His work was covered by the Associated Press, The Washington Post, The New York Times, Los Angeles Times, USA Today, Chicago Tribune, Moscow Times, The Guardian (London), and Newsweek. In 2002, he joined the State Department, focusing on European security and transatlantic relations. He later served as a foreign policy fellow to Senator Edward Kennedy in 2004. In 2005, Mr. Heller returned to stand up Global Integrity as an independent international organization and has led the group since then. He holds a Masters of Science in Foreign Service from Georgetown University and a Bachelors of International Relations and Spanish Literature from the University of Delaware.


Matt Johnson is Chief Counsel to Senator John Cornyn and has worked on Senate Judiciary Committee issues such as judicial nominations, immigration, and intellectual property for several years. In 2007, he was most heavily involved in the bi-partisan efforts of Senator Cornyn and Senator Patrick Leahy that led to enactment of the 2007 FOIA Amendments. He holds a J.D. from Notre Dame Law School, where he was on the law review, and he received his B.A. in 1999 from the Medill School of Journalism at Northwestern University.


Will Kammer has been working with the Freedom of Information Act and declassification fields since 1991. Will has served in various management assignments with the Office of Freedom of Information (OFOI), Department of Defense, since October 1998, was selected as Chief, OFOI in August 2005, and was named Chief of the Defense Freedom of Information Policy Office in January 2006. He has taught courses on the FOIA for the Department of Defense, the Department of Justice, and other government agencies, and for the American Society of Access Professionals. Will was given the annual Outstanding FOIA Officer Award by the Department of Justice's Office of Information and Privacy in March 2006.

Prior to joining OFOI, Will served as a FOIA action officer in the Joint Staff from 1991-1995, and was responsible for developing and implementing the Joint Staff Automatic Declassification plan in 1996. He was the principal declassifying official for the Joint Staff Automatic Declassification program from 1996-1998. Will began his career with the Department of Defense in 1984, serving as an Ammunition Surveillance Specialist with the Department of the Army, and as an Investigator with the Defense Investigative Service prior to joining the Joint Staff in 1991.


Anna Laitin is a professional staff member for the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform under Chairman Henry A. Waxman. She has worked for Representative Waxman since 2003. Ms. Laitin's legislative and oversight responsibilities include issues related to government secrecy, public access to government information, and the preservation of government records.

Ms. Laitin is a graduate of Brown University and received a Masters in Public Affairs from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. Prior to joining the Committee staff, she worked at the DC Appleseed Center, a nonprofit organization focused on improving the operations of the District of Columbia government.


Royce C. Lamberth was appointed United States District Judge for the District of Columbia on November 16, 1987, and entered on duty on the same date. A native of San Antonio, Texas, Judge Lamberth graduated from the University of Texas, receiving a B.A. degree in 1966, and from the University of Texas School of Law, receiving an LL.B. degree in 1967. He served as a Captain in the Judge Advocate General's Corps of the United States Army from 1968 to 1974. After service at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, and in Vietnam, Judge Lamberth served in the Litigation Division of the Office of the Judge Advocate General of the Army at the Pentagon from 1971-1974.

Judge Lamberth served as an Assistant United States Attorney for the District of Columbia from 1974 to 1987 and was Chief of the Civil Division of the United States Attorney's Office from 1978 to 1987. During 1977-1978, he served as Attorney General Griffin Bell's representative to the President's Reorganization Project, Federal Legal Representation Study.

Judge Lamberth is married to the former Janis K. Jost of San Antonio. He is former Chairman of the Federal Litigation Section of the Federal Bar Association, and a member of the American Bar Association and the Bar Association of the District of Columbia, the District of Columbia Bar, and the State Bar of Texas. He is also former Chairman of the Professional Ethics Committee of the Federal Bar Association. The Federal Bar Association's Model Rules of Professional Conduct for Federal Lawyers, finally approved in October, 1990, were drafted by Judge Lamberth's Committee.

Judge Lamberth was appointed by Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist to be the Presiding Judge of the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court on May 19, 1995. His appointment ended May 19, 2002.


Bill Leary serves as Special Adviser to the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and Senior Director, Records and Access Management, for the National Security Council, with responsibility for maintenance, retrieval, disposition, declassification, and controlling access for all NSC records. He also holds the positions of Chair of the Policy Coordinating Committee on Records Access and Information Security and Chair of the Information Security Classification Appeals Panel, the latter of which is a presidential appointment.

Mr. Leary holds B.A., M.A., and A.B.D. degrees in history from the University of Virginia, and during the late 1960s and early 1970s he taught history there, as well as at the College of William & Mary and the University of South Alabama. The author of several publications, he also is a former member (1987-1993) of the City Council of Tacoma Park.


Freddi Lipstein served as the federal government's principal litigator of state secrets privilege cases for more than twenty years. An honors graduate of the University of Southern California Law School, she joined the Justice Department in 1976 as an Honors Program attorney in the former Appellate Section of its Civil Division and became an Appellate Staff Senior Counsel in 1986. From 1982 until her retirement in September 2003, she was the Civil Division's appellate expert on state secrets litigation, guiding the development of the privilege through several presidential administrations.


Dan Metcalfe is a Faculty Fellow in Law and Government at WCL and Executive Director of its Collaboration on Government Secrecy. He joined the WCL faculty in 2007 upon retiring from a career in government service that began at the Department of Justice in 1971. After a judicial clerkship and serving as a Justice Department trial attorney, he was appointed as a founding director of the Department's Office of Information and Privacy in 1981. For more than a quarter-century, he guided all federal agencies on the governmentwide administration of the Freedom of Information Act, supervised the defense of more than 500 FOIA and Privacy Act lawsuits in district and appellate courts, and met with representatives of nearly 100 nations and international governing bodies as they considered the development and implementation of their own government transparency laws. He became a career member of the Senior Executive Service in 1984, the youngest Justice Department attorney then and since to hold such a position, and also has been named an Honorary Senior Research Fellow at University College London.


Matt Miner is the Senate Judiciary Committee's chief minority counsel for crime, terrorism and oversight. During his time with the Committee, he has handled Senator Arlen Specter's hearings and legislation relating to detainees, interrogation, state secrets, and habeas corpus. Prior to his work with the Senate, Matt was an Assistant United States Attorney in the Middle District of Alabama, where he served as Corporate Fraud Coordinator and managed the largest corporate fraud investigation in the district's history. Matt is a graduate of the University of Cincinnati and the University of Michigan Law School, where he was elected to Order of the Coif. Following law school, he clerked for the Honorable Richard W. Vollmer, Jr., United States District Judge for the Southern District of Alabama.


Sean Moulton is Director of Information Policy at OMB Watch, where directs its work on increasing government transparency with special attention on environmental information and right-to-know issues. One of his first jobs was as Environmental Researcher and Data Manager for the Council on Economic Priorities (CEP), manipulating and analyzing environmental information that is disseminated under the policies he now advocates. Prior to joining OMB Watch, Sean honed his lobbying and policy analysis skills as the Tax Policy Analyst at Friends of the Earth. His work experience also includes several years as a research fellow with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the Industry Sector Policy Division.

Recent priority work at OMB Watch for Sean has included coordinating nationwide opposition to EPA's cutbacks to the Toxic Release Inventory and overseeing the development of, a groundbreaking new Web site that allows users to easily search and browse trillions of dollars in federal spending. For years, OMB Watch has also operated the Right to Know Network (RTK NET), a Web site that provides public access to almost a dozen environmental databases. Sean will be helping to bring lessons learned from to a redesign of the environmental database functions on RTK NET. Sean received a Masters of Public Policy degree from the University of Maryland and has a B.A. in Economics and English.


Laura Neuman is the Assistant Director for the Americas Program at The Carter Center in Atlanta. She also is the Access to Information Project Manager for The Carter Center and directs and implements its transparency projects, including projects in Jamaica, Bolivia, Nicaragua, and Mali, and at the hemispheric level in the Americas. She most recently developed and managed the International Conference on the Right to Public Information for more than 125 participants from 40 countries. Ms. Neuman edited six widely distributed guidebooks on fostering transparency and preventing corruption, has been published in a number of books, and has presented at numerous international seminars relating to access to information legislation, implementation, and enforcement.

Ms. Neuman is a member of the Initiative for Policy Dialogue task force on transparency, a board member of the Center for Transparency and Access to Information Studies, Mexico, and an International Associate to the Open Democracy Advice Center, South Africa, and she has served as a consultant to the World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, and a number of governments. As part of her transparency work, she served as Executive Secretary for the Carter Center's Council for Ethical Business Practices. Ms. Neuman also has led and participated in international election monitoring missions throughout the Western Hemisphere. Prior to joining The Carter Center in August 1999, Ms. Neuman was senior staff attorney for Senior Law at Legal Action of Wisconsin. She is a 1993 graduate of the University of Wisconsin law school.


Jim Rettig currently is president-elect of the American Library Association and a member of the board of the Freedom to Read Foundation. He previously served on the ALA's executive board and in a variety of elected and appointed positions in the association. He has worked in academic libraries in Kentucky, Ohio, Illinois, and Virginia, and he currently is university librarian at the University of Richmond. The University of Wisconsin School of Library and Information Studies presented him with its Distinguished Alumnus Award in 2006.


Tom Susman is a partner in the Washington Office of Ropes & Gray, where his work includes counseling, litigation, and lobbying on access to government information and privacy, in addition to his general legislative and regulatory practice. He has testified frequently on FOIA reform before the U.S. Congress and authored a number of works on information and privacy. He advised Shanghai on open government information, wrote a chapter on Access to Documents in the European Union for an ABA publication, co-authored a BNA portfolio on business information, and taught classes and courses on the FOIA to government lawyers, government access professionals, and law students. He has also been involved in a number of freedom of information cases at the state and federal levels and before foreign tribunals. Currently serving in the House of Delegates of the American Bar Association, he is also a member of the American Law Institute, Chairman of the National Judicial College, and President of the District of Columbia Public Library Foundation.

Before joining Ropes & Gray, Mr. Susman served on Capitol Hill as chief counsel to the Senate Judiciary Committee; prior to that he was in the Office of Legal Counsel of the U.S. Department of Justice. He graduated from Yale University and received his J.D. from the University of Texas Law School.

Mr. Susman very recently was appointed Director of Government Affairs for the American Bar Association, a position that he will assume in May.


During his career at WCL, Robert Vaughn has been Scholar-in-Residence with the law faculty of King's College of the University of London, a visiting professor at the University of San Diego School of Law and a visiting professor at Ritsumeikan University School of Law in Kyoto, Japan. He has also served as a faculty member in summer programs in Santiago, Chile and Istanbul, Turkey. At WCL, he has received eight awards for outstanding teaching and in 1983 was selected as American University's Teacher/Scholar of the Year, the university's highest faculty award. During his visit at the University of San Diego School of Law, the student body there elected him Professor of the Year.

He has published on a variety of topics regarding public information law, public employment law, consumer law, and whistleblower protection. He is the author of a book on federal open government laws in the United States, the editor of a book on freedom of information, and the author of several articles addressing public information law. He has written several books on public employment law, including ones on civil service reform, principles of civil service law, conflict of interest regulation in the federal government, and the United States Merit Systems Protection Board. His public employment law articles address topics, such as, the right to disobey illegal orders, ethics in government, the Hatch Act, the role of public employment laws in the transition to democracy, and British regulation of public service ethics. He is the author of a book and related articles on consumer protection laws in South America. His articles on whistleblower protection address important statutes, such as the whistleblower provision of the Civil Service Reform Act, the whistleblower provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, state whistleblower laws, and the model law to implement the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption. He is also the author of a book and articles on civil procedure, judicial reform and the federal courts.

Among his consulting positions have been ones with the Treasury and Civil Service Committee of the House of Commons, the World Bank, and the Office of Legal Cooperation of the Organization of American States. He has testified several times before Congress on civil service reform, the federal Freedom of Information Act, and whistleblower protection. He was the plaintiff in the landmark case of Vaughn v. Rosen, which in 1973 established important procedural requirements for litigation under the federal Freedom of Information Act.

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