Dr. Sanya Samtani of the University of Pretoria in South Africa discusses how Access to Knowledge in General and the Right to Research in Particular may be considered human rights in the context of international human rights instruments and the obligations of nation states.
Dr Desmond Oriakhogba of the University of Venda, South Africa continues the discussion on how the Right to Research may be considered a human right.
Klaus D. Beiter, Reforming Copyright or Toward Another Science? – A More Human Rights-Oriented Approach under the REBSPA in Constructing a “Right to Research” for Scholarly Publishing, Forthcoming in Brooklyn Journal of International Law, Vol. 48, No. 1 (2023), https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4196341
Oriakhogba, Desmond O. Oriakhogba. "The Right to Research in Africa: Making African Copyright Whole." (2022) PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series no. 78. Link.
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General comment No. 25 (2020) on science and economic, social and cultural rights (article 15 (1) (b), (2), (3) and (4) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights) E/C.12/GC/25. Link.
Shaver, Lea Bishop, The Right to Science: Ensuring that Everyone Benefits from Scientific and Technological Progress (November 13, 2015). European Journal of Human Rights, 2015/4, 411-430, Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law Research Paper No. 2015-46. Link.
Shaver, Lea Bishop, The Right to Read (September 10, 2015). Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 1-58, 2015, Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law Research Paper No. 2015-4. Link.
Shaver, Lea Bishop, The Right to Science and Culture (March 6, 2009). Wisconsin Law Review 2010, no. 1 121-184. Link.
Audrey Chapman and Jessica Wyndham, A Human Right to Science, June 2013 Science 340(6138):1291. Link.
Jessica M. Wyndham, Margaret W. Vitullo, Rebecca Everly, Teresa M. Stoepler and Nathaniel Weisenberg, "The Right to Science From Principle to Practice and the Role of National Science Academies," in Helle Porsdam & Sebastian Porsdam Mann (eds.), The Right to Science: Then and Now (Cambridge University Press, 2021), Link.
Report of the Special Rapporteur in the field of cultural rights, Farida Shaheed : copyright policy and the right to science and culture (2014), Link.
Jessica Litman, The Exclusive Right to Read, 13 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 29 (1994).Link.
Audrey R. Chapman, Towards an Understanding of the Right to Enjoy the Benefits of Scientific Progress and Its Applications, Journal of Human Rights, Volume 8, - Issue 1 (2009).Link.
Text and Data Mining, Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence
Prof. Levendowski considers how Artificial Intelligence can reproduce biases such as racism, unless training data is more readily available. She considers what TDM researchers need to do to perform their research. How do their methods implicate copyright or other exclusive rights? How does lack of copyright permission distort research outcomes?
Professor Matthew Sag of Emory Law School discusses the concept of Non-Expressive Use as the basis for a Right to Research in copyright law. Professor Sag is the author of "The New Legal Landscape for Text Mining and Machine Learning", 66 Journal Copyright Society of the USA 1 (2019).
Srofessor Carys Craig of Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, Canada talks about limits to copyright protection which form the basis of a Right to Research. Professor Craig is author of Craig, Carys J. (2017) "Globalizing User Rights-Talk: On Copyright Limits and Rhetorical Risks," American University International Law Review: Vol. 33 : Iss. 1 , Article 1.
Amanda Levendowski, How Copyright Law Can Fix Artificial Intelligence’s Implicit Bias Problem, 93 Wash L. Rev. 579 (2018). Link.
Matthew Sag, The New Legal Landscape for Text Mining and Machine Learning, 66 J. Copyright Soc’y USA 1 (2019), Link.
Carys Craig, AI and Copyright, in Florian Martin-Bariteau & Teresa Scassa, eds., Artificial Intelligence and the Law in Canada (Toronto: LexisNexis Canada, 2021), Link.
David Lehr & Paul Ohm, Playing with the Data: What Legal Scholars Should Learn About Machine Learning, 51 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 653-717 (2017) Link.
Jerome H. Reichman & Ruth L. Okediji, When Copyright Law and Science Collide: Empowering Digitally Integrated Research Methods on a Global Scale, 96 Minn. L. Rev. 1362, 1362?2182 (2012). Link.
Drexl, Hilty et al., Technical Aspects of Artificial Intelligence: An Understanding from an Intellectual Property Law Perspective, Version 1.0, October 2019, available at: Link.
SCHÖNBERGER Daniel, Deep Copyright: Up- and Downstream - Questions Related to Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) in Droit d’auteur 4.0 / Copyright 4.0, DE WERRA Jacques (ed.), Geneva / Zurich (Schulthess Editions Romandes) 2018, pp. 145-173.
Sholom M. Weiss, Nitin Indurkhya, and Tong Zhang. Fundamentals of Predictive Text Mining 15 (David Gries & Fred B. Schneider eds., 2010). , Fundamentals of Predictive Text Mining 15 (David Gries & Fred B. Schneider eds., 2010). Link.
Han, Jiawei, Micheline Kamber, and Jian Pei. Data Mining: Concept and Techniques (Morgan Kaufmann ed., 3d ed., 2011). Link.
Diane McDonald & Ursula Kelly, The Value and Benefit of Text Mining to UK Further and Higher Education, JISC (2012). Link..
Michelle Brook, Peter Murray-Rust and Charles Oppenheim. The Social, Political and Legal Aspects of Text and Data Mining (TDM), 20 D-Lib Magazine 1?8 (2014). Link.
Peter Murray-Rust, Jennifer Molloy and Diance Cabell. Open Content Mining, in Issues in Open Research Data, (Samuel A. Moore ed., 2014). Link.
Rachael G. Samberg & Cody Hennesy, Law and Literacy in Non-Consumptive Text Mining: Guiding Researchers Through the Landscape of Computational Text Analysis, in Copyright Conversations: Rights Literacy in a Digital World (UC Berkeley 2019). Link.
Craig, Carys J. (2017) "Globalizing User Rights-Talk: On Copyright Limits and Rhetorical Risks," American University International Law Review: Vol. 33 : Iss. 1 , Article 1. Link.
Carys Craig, The AI-Copyright Challenge: Tech-Neutrality, Authorship, and the Public Interest, in Ryan Abbott (ed.) Research Handbook on Intellectual Property and Artificial Intelligence (Edward Elgar Press, 2022 Forthcoming), Osgoode Legal Studies Research Paper, Link.
Copyright Exceptions for Text and Data Mining in the US and EU
Felix Reda, a Former Member of the EU Parliament talks about the European Union TDM exception. Felix Reda is author of "Creative Commons’ statement on CC licenses and the text and data mining exception under Article 4 EU CDSM Directive", Creative Commons (2021).Overview
Michael W. Carroll, Copyright and the Progress of Science: Why Text and Data Mining is Lawful, 53 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 893 (2019) Link.
Felix Reda, Creative Commons’ statement on CC licenses and the text and data mining exception under Article 4 EU CDSM Directive, Creative Commons (2021) Link.
Pamela Samuelson, Justifications for Copyright Limitations and Exceptions, in Copyright Law in an Age of Limitations and Exceptions 12?59 (Ruth Okediji ed., 2017). Link.
Edward Lee, Technological Fair Use, 83 S. Cal. L. Rev. 797 (2010), Link.
Benjamin Sobel, Artificial Intelligence's Fair Use Crisis, 41 Colum. J.L. & Arts 45 (2017), Link.
Mark A. Lemley & Bryan Casey, Fair Learning 99 Texas Law Review 743 (2021), Link.
Professor Allan Rocha de Souza of the Brazilian Copyright Institute, Federal University Rio de Janeiro discusses the difference between civil law and common law copyright statutes. Professor Rocha de Souza is author of 'Copyright, Human Rights, and the Social Function of Property in Brazil', in Jonathan Griffiths, and Tuomas Mylly (eds), Global Intellectual Property Protection and New Constitutionalism: Hedging Exclusive Rights (Oxford, 2021).
Thomas Margoni, Martin Kretschmer, A Deeper Look into the EU Text and Data Mining Exceptions: Harmonisation, Data Ownership, and the Future of Technology, GRUR International, Volume 71, Issue 8, August 2022, Pages 685–701, Link.
Allan Rocha de Souza,'Copyright, Human Rights, and the Social Function of Property in Brazil', in Jonathan Griffiths, and Tuomas Mylly (eds), Global Intellectual Property Protection and New Constitutionalism: Hedging Exclusive Rights (Oxford, 2021; online edn, Oxford Academic, 23 Dec. 2021), Link.
Allan Rocha de Souza, ‘Fundamental Rights, Development and Cultural Inclusion: The Marrakesh Treaty in Brazil’. The WIPO Journal, v. 8, p. 75-86, 2016. Available at Link.
Maurizio Borghi & Stavroula Karapapa, Non-Display Uses of Copyright Works: Google Books and Beyond, 1 Queen Mary J. Intell. Prop. 21 (2011),Link.