Manfred Nowak is Professor of International Law and Human Rights at the University of Vienna, and Director of the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights. He was the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture from 2004-2010. Nowak’s other work with the UN includes serving as a member of the Austrian delegation to the UN Commission on Human Rights and contributing to UN initiatives as an expert member in several capacities. Nowak has been a judge, with one year as vice president, of the Human Rights Chamber for Bosnia and Herzegovina; Chairperson of the European Master Programme on Human Rights and Democratization in Venice; Director of the Netherlands Institute of Human Rights at the University of Utrecht; and was the 2002-2003 Olof Palme Visiting Professor at the Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law at the University of Lund. In 1994, he was awarded a UNESCO prize for the teaching of human rights. Nowak holds an LL.M. from Columbia University in New York and a PhD from Vienna University. He has published more than 350 books and articles in the fields of human rights, public law and politics.