Chapter Thirteen: Wildlife and Biodiversity

I. History and Background

    A. Introduction

Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy - addresses legal and political issues concerning the human race's interrelationship with and management of wildlife species, their habitats, and the biosphere

World Resources Institute: Biological Resources - focuses on issues supporting the conservation, sustainable use, and equitable distribution of benefits of biodiversity

World Charter for Nature - calls for States to include the formulation of strategies for the conservation of nature, the establishment of inventories of ecosystems and assessments of the effects on nature of proposed policies and activities

Bibliography: Climate Change and Its Impact on Biodiversity - prepared by Wil Burns of the Pacific Institute, lists citations in HTML and PDF formats on climate change and its impacts on flora and fauna species and critical supporting ecosystems

Nature's Place - Population Action International's report on the human population's impact on biodiversity

American Society of Int'l Law - Wildlife Interest Group

    B. What is biodiversity?
What is Biodiversity? - includes an overview, policy information, and facts and figures regarding biodiversity

Biodiversity Search Engine - provides exhaustive links for information on biodiversity

    C. The Value of Biodiversity
Report Summary: What Price Biodiversity? Economic Incentives and Biodiversity Conservation in the United States - addresses the arguments behind the current takings dispute and describes efficient ways of strengthening the relationship between economic health and conservation
    D. Wildlife and Biodiversity Loss
Threats to Biodiversity - provides an overview, policy information, and facts and figures regarding biodiversity threats
    E. Sustainable Use v. Preservation
Preservation and Management of Biodiversity - provided by CIESIN, outlines the current strategies and agreements to promote biodiversity preservation
II. The Biodiversity Convention
Convention on Biological Diversity - includes the complete text of the Convention, related documents, and further information

Convention on Biological Diversity: CBD and Related Information List Server - To subscribe, send a message stating "subscribe biodiv-conv" to

    A. The Negotiating Process
Background of the Convention - explains the steps the United Nations Environment Programme undertook up to the signing of the Convention
    B. Overview of the Convention
Reports on the Administration of Convention - the Convention Secretariat provides reports in PDF and HTML formats
    C. Encouraging National Conservation of Biodiversity
Biodiversity and the Convention on Biological Diversity - a U.S. Department of State Fact Sheet, stating that a central objective of U.S. environmental policy is the preservation and sustainable use of natural resources

Worldwide Rainforest/Forest Conservation Archives - provides directories of forest, rainforest and biodiversity conservation information

    D. Regulating the Biotechnology Trade
National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources - plays a significant role in crop improvement and diversification in India through its efforts in collection of genetic diversity in different agri-horticultural crops from within the country as well as from other countries

Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS) - provides a communication and information tool for use by countries, a clearing-house for information and data, a secure system giving countries control over their data and an element of the strategic framework for the management of farm animal genetic resources

UK Agricultural Biodviersity Coalition - brings together public interest UK organisations concerned with sustainable use, conservation, benefit sharing, trade, patents, IP, biopiracy, biotechnology, genetic engineering, biosafety and other issues related to the equitable use of agricultural biodiversity for local food and livelihood security

The International Society of African Scientists: Abstracts of the 13th Annual Conference on Biotechnology and Biodiversity - includes the program and abstracts of the conference Biotechnology and Biodiversity - A Challenge for the Development of Agricultural, Bio-medical and Pharmaceutical Sectors in Africa and the Caribbean

    E. Promoting International Cooperation for Biodiversity Conservation
UNEP/GEF Project on National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans - analyzes the role the Global Environment Facility plays with respect to the CBD

Virtual Global Biodiversity Forum - provides a forum to address ecological, economic, institutional and social issues related to the options for action to conserve biodiversity

World Resources Institute: Global Biodiversity Forum - serves to facilitate the involvement of civil society, scientists, indigenous peoples, business and industry, and other stakeholders in the biodiversity debate

Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN) - provides greater and more useful access to biodiversity information throughout the hemisphere

World Conservation Monitoring Centre - provides information on conservation and sustainable use of the world's living resources, including programs on biodiversity assessment.

    F. Cross-Cutting Issues
1. Indigenous Peoples and Cultural Knowledge

Indigenous Peoples Biodiversity Information Network - acts as a mechanism to exchange information about experiences and projects and to increase collaboration among indigenous groups working on common causes related to biodiversity use and conservation

The People and Plants Initiative - carries out research projects, community workshops, exchanges and training courses with young ethnobotanists from developing countries who are interested in conservation and community development

Nuffic: Indigenous Knowledge - aims to facilitate and improve the exchange of information on indigenous knowledge within the International Indigenous Knowledge (IK) Network

Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor - provides an instrument for the exchange of information, a platform for debate on the concept of indigenous knowledge in a variety of disciplines and an overview of activities in the field of indigenous knowledge and sustainable development

Knowledge and Information for Development (IKD) - provides a list of document archives

Roundtable on Intellectual Property and Indigenous Peoples - provides a program and transcripts of the roundtable of the World Intellectual Property Organization

BIO-IPR: Intellectual Property Rights Related to Biodiversity and Associated Knowledge List Server - To subscribe, send a message stating "subscribe" to

2. International Trade and the Biodiversity Convention

National Genetic Resources Program - acquires, preserves and distributes genetic resources for the benefit of the U.S. and the world, to include enhancing human health through new crop and animal varieties, improving environmental quality, providing the basis for more sustainable production systems, and improving the balance of trade for the U.S.

Genetic Resources Action International (GRAIN) - helps further a global movement against genetic erosion

3. Gender Issues and Biodiversity

Qomolangma Women: Stories from Experience - reports on the experiences of women Pendebas -- "Village Welfare Workers" involved in village health work, environmental protection and income generation -- living on the Qomolangma Nature Preserve in Tibet

4. Conserving Marine Biodiversity

Convention on the Law of the Sea - governs all aspects of ocean space, such as delimitation, environmental control, marine scientific research, economic and commercial activities, transfer of technology and the settlement of disputes relating to ocean matters

Center for Marine Conservation - promotes informed citizen participation to reverse the degradation of our oceans through science-based advocacy, research and public education

WhaleNet Internet Resources - compiled by Ronald Mitchell and Michael Williamson, lists marine mammal links and information

5. The Biosafety Protocol

The Biosafety Protocol - Article 19.4 of the CBD provides for Parties to consider the need for and modalities of a protocol adressing concerns about the potential risks to biodiversity and human health posed by living modified organisms

International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology: Biosafety WebPages - promotes the safe use of biotechnology world-wide, with special regard to the needs of the developing world

Biosafety Resources on the Internet - a list of over 50 links dealing with the impacts of biotechnology on flora and fauna, maintained by the Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy

Modified Organisms and International Law: An Ethical Perspective - by Alberto Szekely, a commentary on the Biosafety Protocol

6. The Human Genome Project

Human Genome Project - a global research project involved in DNA sequencing as well as the identification and localization of every gene within appropriate chromosomes

7. Alien Species

Invasive Alien Species - includes general information and links to data, publications and other documents; photographs, distribution maps and other visual resources

III. Wildlife Conservation
    A. Introduction
Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats - aims to ensure conservation of wild flora and fauna species and their habitats in the European Economic Community

European Centre for Nature Conservation - furthers European nature conservation by bridging the gap between science and policy

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service - a Federal agency responsible for conserving, protecting and sustaining fish, wildlife and plants and their habitats

Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (Bonn Convention) - reports on the sixth Conference of the Parties (COP-6)

American Society of International Law: Wildlife Interest Group - contributes to the conservation of endangered wildlife species through scholarship and public education as well as through the strengthening of international wildlife treaty regimes, regional accords and national legislation that implements international treaty regimes

Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy - aims to address legal and political issues concerning the management of wildlife species, their habitats, and the biosphere

    B. Whales
Saving Whales with DNA - a strategy for ending the global black market in whale meat through the use of DNA analysis

Earthtrust Homepage - an international nonprofit conservation organization dedicated to the preservation of wildlife and the natural environment

1. History

International Whaling Commission - tables, threat of extinction, and other useful information

International Whaling Commission Resolutions - by the Wildlife Interest Group, provides links to the resolutions of the 42nd to 51st meetings

2. International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling

International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, 1946 - establishes an International Whaling Commission

3. Moratorium, Unilateral Action, and Scientific Whaling

Japan Whaling Association - a non-governmental organization to collect, study and propagate information about whaling and to contribute to the resumption and sound development of ecologically sustainable whaling based on scientific findings

Greenpeace International: Oceans Campaign - describes the organization's ocean campaigns, to include its whales campaign

    C. Dolphins
1. The Tuna Fishery and Dolphin mortality

Dolphin Hotline - includes information and legislation on tuna/dolphin issues

2. U.S. Legislative Response

Dolphin Death Bills - reports on new bills adverse to the conservation of dolphins

U.S. Customs Halts Tuna Imports From Spain and Panama - prohibits importation of tuna harvested through dolphin unfriendly methods by exporting countries

3. International Response to U.S. Sanctions

Original Text of the Panama Declaration - reaffirms the commitments and objectives of the La Jolla Agreement with respect to reducing dolphin mortality in the eastern Pacific Ocean

IV. Trade in Endangered Species
    A. Introduction
The Illegal Trade in Endangered Species - an article published in African Security Review, provides an introduction and analysis of illegal trade in endangered species in South Africa
    B. CITES Provisions
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) - bans international trade in an agreed list of endangered species and by regulating and monitoring trade in others that might become endangered

The CITES Secretariat - helps the Parties to implement CITES by providing interpretation of the provisions of the Convention, and advice on its practical implementation

Sea Cucumber Populations Threatened Due To Increased Trade - watchdog organization warns of dramatic drop in sea cucumbers in Ecuador's Galapagos Islands due to increased trade demands

    C. Amendments to the Appendices
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora: Appendices - includes the full text of Appendices I, II and III

1. The Elephant Controversy

Saving Africa's Elephants: No Easy Answers - examines the ban on world trade in elephant ivory and the continued killings

2. Mahogany

Mahogany Is Murder Campaign - calls for a complete ban of Latin American mahogany

3. Whales

Proposal submitted by Norway to transfer the Northeast Atlantic and North Atlantic Central stocks of minke whale from Appendix I to Appendix II - provides an overview of Norway's proposal to CITES

    D. Cross-Cutting Issues
1. Role of NGOs

TRAFFIC Network - the wildlife trade monitoring programme of World Wide Fund For Nature and The World Conservation Union

Sea Turtle Restoration Project - works to protect sea turtle populations in ways that meet the ecological needs of the sea turtles and the needs of the local communities who share the beaches and waters with these endangered species

Expert Center for Taxonomic Identification (ETI) - develops and produces scientific and educational computer aided information systems, improves the general access to and promotes the broad use of taxonomic and biodiversity knowledge worldwide

2. Sustainable Use

Sustainable Use of Biodiversity Program Initiative - supports research that aims to enhance the capacity of local and indigenous peoples to protect, access and sustainably use biodiversity and knowledge of biodiversity

Public Safety and Wildlife Protection - reports that Kenya's wildlife parks are in conflict with nearby farmers over animal protection law