Chapter Seventeen: National Security, the Law of War, and Environmental Protection

If trees could speak they would cry out that since they are not the cause of war it is wrong for them to bear its penalties.

Hugo Grotius, On The Law of War and Peace (1625)

I. National Security and Environmental Protection
Environmental Diplomacy: The Environment and U.S. Foreign Policy - includes full text of the first report from Secretary of State, Madeline Albright

Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security - promotes an interdisciplinary perspective on solving problems concerning environmental degradation, regional and global poverty, and political tension and conflict

II. The Law of War and Environment Protection
    A. Background
Declaration Renouncing the Use, in Time of War, of Certain Explosive Projectiles: Saint Petersburg, 29 November/11 December 1868 - forbids the use of certain projectiles in time of war between civilized nations

Lieber Code of 1863 - consists of instructions for the government of armies of the United States in the field, imposing rules on the treatment of civilians and prisoners of war as well as restricting the means and methods of warfare to protect property whose destruction was not necessary to the war effort

    B. The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 (Hague I-IV)
Convention (IV) Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land - includes provisions intended to serve as a general rule of conduct for the belligerents in their mutual relations and in their relations with the inhabitants
    C. Geneva Conventions of 1949 (Geneva Conventions I-IV)
Convention (I) For the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field - addresses care for the wounded and sick in the field as well as the protection of medical units and establishments

Convention (IV) Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War - addresses protected persons during war time as well as the activities of the International Committee of the Red Cross

    D. Environmental Protection and the Modern Law of War
The Environmental Change and Security Project - a multi-disciplinary effort at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars examining the interrelationships between environment, population and security

Commentary on Earth Day and Rambouillet - alleges that international humanitarian law has been violated due to the environmental damage incurred during the Balkan crisis

EU Presses NATO Over Uranium Arms - provided by BBC News, reports that the European Commission wants answers from NATO regarding incidences of leukemia among military personnel in the Balkan region affected by weapons using depleted uranium

    E. 1980 Protocol III to the United Nations Conventional Weapons Convention
Convention on Conventional Weapons - includes summary, status and links to the full text of the Convention as well as links to additional related resources
    F. Nuclear Weapons
International Court of Justice: Legality of Nuclear Weapons - includes the complete text of the opinion to include concurring and dissenting opinions
Problem Exercise:1990 Persian Gulf War
U.N. Resolution 687 (1991) - includes the full text of the Resolution

UN Compensation Commission on Iraq Makes New Payment to Victims - reporting that the U.N. Compensation Commission made available $101,967,360.03 to parties suffering losses due to the 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in April 1999