Chapter Nine: The Law of Air and Atmosphere

I. Introduction To Air Pollution Issues

Air Pollution - EPA Office of Air & Radiation's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS)

Clean Air & Energy - by the Natural Resource Defense Council

Office of Air & Radiation - deals with indoor and outdoor air quality as well as protection from harmful radiation

II. Customary International Law and Transboundary Air Pollution
    A. The Trail Smelter Arbitration
1937 Trail Smelter Case - involves transboundary sulfur dioxide emissions emanating from a smelter located in Canada a few miles from the U.S.-Canada border
Trail Community Lead Task Force Homepage - seeks to achieve an "acceptable" level of lead exposure risk for sensitive populations in the Trail area
III. Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution and Acid Deposition
    A. The North American Approach
1. The 1991 U.S.-Canada Bilateral Air Quality Agreement

Agreement Between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United States of America on Air Quality - requires each Party to accept specific emission reduction objectives and establishes several procedural and institutional mechanisms for future cooperation

Toward a More Efficient Transboundary Exchange of Air Quality Data - U.S.-Canada transboundary forum

(VoyagerFormat) Transboundary Air Quality Data Archive - describes international groups that are working towards cooperation on transboundary air quality issues

    B. The UN Economic Commission for Europe's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - provides an introduction to UNECE, a calendar of meetings, press releases, links to UNECE trade, publications, etc.
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) - first international legally binding instrument to deal with air pollution on a broad regional basis
Selected Environmental Laws in Europe - covers Central and Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and individual European countries with translations
    C. Protocols to the LRTAP Convention
1. Financing Air Monitoring and the EMEP
Air Pollution Fees to Reduce Pollution & Reduce Income Taxes - review of present governmental programs and policies
2. Nitrous Oxide
Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes (1988 Sofia Protocol) - requires the freezing of nitrogen oxide emissions at 1987 levels and the application of an effects-based approach
3. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or Their Transboundary Fluxes (1991 Geneva Protocol) - aims to limit VOCs, which contribute to the creation of ground-level or tropospheric ozone
The National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) - lists substances that will require lowering in Canada, to include ozone-depleting substances
4. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Further Reduction of Sulfur Emissions (1994 Oslo Protocol) - adopts a "critical load" approach to controlling sulfur dioxide, which determines the emission reduction obligations of Parties to the Protocol
Chemical Profile of Sulfur Dioxide - basic information provided by the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health & Safety
Sulfur Dioxide - text version of Sulfur Dioxide National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report
IV. Ozone Depletion
    A. The Science and Economics of Ozone Depletion
1. The Stratospheric Ozone Layer
Stratospheric Ozone and UV-B - Atmospheric Chemistry Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research focuses on stratospheric ozone and UV-B
2. The Destruction of Atmospheric Ozone
The Ozone Hole Tour - multimedia presentation on ozone depletion provided by the Centre for Atmospheric Science at University of Cambridge
3. The Current State of Ozone Depletion
Ozone and the Atmosphere Main Menu - discusses the chemical composition and evolution of Earth's atmosphere, focusing on the ozone layer
4. Impacts of UV-B on Human Health and the Environment
The Sun,UV and You - A Guide to SunWise Behavior - providing basic information on protection from UV-B
UV Impacts on Aquatic Ecosystems - assessing the consequences of global change for aquatic ecosystems: climate, land use, and UV radiation
5. The Economics of Ozone Depleting Substances(ODS)
Ozone Action Homepage - focuses on global warming and ozone depletion issues, to include information of shareholder meetings with global warming resolutions
    B. The Negotiations Over the Montreal Protocol Regime
1. Prologue to Vienna

Environmental Philosophy of SC Johnson Wax - SC Johnson Wax, the consumer products company which eliminated CFCs from its aerosol products in 1975, provides its general company policy on sustaining the environment and improving its products

2. The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (1985)

The 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer - calls for nations to take "appropriate measures" to protect the ozone layer and to encourage research, cooperation among countries, and exchange of information

3. Preparations for the Montreal Protocol

DuPont's Position Statement on CFCs and Substitutes - explains DuPont's position on CFC production and introducing non-ozone-depleting alternatives

4. The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer (1987)

The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer - contains clauses to cover the special circumstances of developing countries and provides for flexible control measures reflecting changes in scientific evidence

5. The London Adjustments and Amendments to the Montreal Protocol (1990)

Report of the Second Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer - institutes controls for new classes of ozone depleting substances such as hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)

6. Copenhagen Revisions and Beyond

Report of the Fourth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer - moves the CFC ban forward to 1996 and institutes halon ban by 1994

    C. Current Status and Cross-Cutting Themes
1. Implementation and Compliance

UNEPIE OzonAction Programme under the Multilateral Fund: Information about the Montreal Protocol - provides various links to documents on international ozone protection

2. Enforcement and Dispute Resolution

UNEPIE OzonAction Programme Home Page - provides a clearinghouse function to assist developing countries with their phase out of ozone-depleting substances

3. International Finance: The Montreal Protocol Fund

The Secretariat of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol - contains general information about the activities of the Multilateral Fund, documentation and registration procedures for forthcoming meetings, and forms for reporting progress of implementation of country programmes

The Financial Mechanism (UNEP) - includes a Multilateral Fund and other multilateral, regional, and bilateral co-operation

19th Open-Ended Working Group Of The Parties To The Montreal Protocol - focuses on replenishment of the Multilateral Fund

4. Technology Transfer

World Trade Organization Committee on Trade and Environment - examines relationships between environmental policies and WTO services and intellectual property agreements

5. Global Politics

Global Environment and Sustainable Development - discusses conflict and cooperation between North and South in pursuing sustainable economic development while protecting the global environment

6. The Montreal Protocol and International Trade

World Trade Organization: Trade and The Environment - provides an overview of WTO agreements and work dealing with environmental concerns

7. The Role of Non-State Actors

International Cooperative for Environmental Leadership (formerly ICOLP) - provides general information on ICEL, an association of international electronics and aerospace corporations promoting innovative environmental solutions

    D. Lessons From the Ozone Layer
Ozone Information Resources on WWW - provides various links to more information
V. Climate Change
    A. Introduction and Facts
Climate Monitoring & Diagnostics Laboratory - conducts research related to atmospheric constituents that are capable of forcing change in the climate of the Earth or that may deplete the ozone layer

Atmosphere & Climate: Internet Resources Collection - provides links to climate policy; climate research; acid rain, air quality & ozone depletion; and weather

Organization for Economic Co-operaion and Development Climate Change Links - lists climate change links and information from his Intro to International Relations webpage

Global Climate Change: Selective List of Online Resources - Pacific Institute provides excellent links to whole range of climate change resources on the web

ENN Global Warming Quiz - test your knowledge about global warming and the greenhouse effect

1. Climate Change Science

Vital Climate Graphics - from the UNEP, 40 excellent overheads on climate change science, trends, and possible impacts

Dutch Global Climate Change Research Programme - encourages and finances climate research, conducted by a variety of universities and institutes

Climate Change - Environment Net Links - provides links to general information on climate change programs and related issues

US Global Change Research Information Office - provides access to data and informationon global environmental change research, adaptation/mitigation strategies and technologies, and global change related educational resources

National Science Foundation Global Change Research Programs - supports research and other activities that furthers understanding of dynamic physical, biological, and socioeconomic systems and interactions among those systems as they relate to global change

Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) - develops a new scientific field described as Earth System Analysis (ESA) to improve the quality and evidence of scientific knowledge about the dynamics of the Earth system

2. The Impacts of Global Warming and Climate Change

EPA Global Warming Site - the site offers an explanation of global warming, a chart tracking global temperatures, a reference guide to Government publications, and slides on the topic

3. Causes of Climate Change

Ozone Depletion and Global Environmental Change: List of References - provides a bibliography of ozone links

    B. Responding to Climate Change
1. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies

Global Change Home Page - seeks to familiarize the public with issues associated with climate change and ozone depletion

WWF's Climate Change Campaign - raises countries' awareness of the threats of climate change and to persuade governments to introduce responsible policies

IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme - provides an introduction to climate change as well as information on technical solutions

2. Understanding the Costs and Benefits of Preventing Climate Change

Office of Energy Efficiency (Canada) - provides helpful tools and information to increase the energy efficiency of homes, vehicles, businesses, institutions, and governments

    C. The Global Politics of Climate Change
Government of Canada Global Climate Change Site - explains what the Government of Canada is doing to address the problems of climate change and how all Canadians can take action to help protect the environment

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - assesses the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability - provides a Summary for Policy Makers

Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Third Assessment Report - provides a Summary for Policy Makers

Global Change Electronic Edition: Latest Postings - provides information on the Working Group I Report of the IPCC

Weathervane: Resources for the Future's Digital Forum on Global Climate Policy - covers perspectives on global policy

UC-Davis Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation: Global Climate Change - a state-wide research program on global climate change to bring objective scientific and technical expertise to the United Nations climate change negotiations

    D. The Framework Convention on Climate Change
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - the official site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This homepage provides full text versions of all documentation from Kyoto and all past and present UN press releases. Links to the Third Conference of the Parties (CoP)

Linkages: UN Framework Convention on Climate Change - provides ENB coverage of the Fifth meeting of the Conference of the Parties, Informal Exchange of Views and Information on Compliance Under the Kyoto Protocol, UNFCCC subsidiary bodies, and UNFCCC's technical workshop on mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol

Summary of the 5th CoP to the Climate Change Convention - published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)

1. The First CoP and the Berlin Mandate

Documents of the Conference of the Parties, At Its First Session, (CoP 1) - includes relevant documents in PDF and HTML formats in English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, and Spanish

2. Prelude to Kyoto

Hagel/Byrd Resolution - urges the President to not agree to any convention that does not include binding targets on developing countries

    E. The Kyoto Protocol
Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change- establishes quantified emissions limitation and reduction objectives (QELROs) to be implemented over a five year commitment period followed by subsequent commitment periods

White House Initiative on Global Climate Change - establishes a framework within which targets are set to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

Climate, Biodiversity, and Forests: Issues and Opportunities Emerging from the Kyoto Protocol - includes information on a report published by the World Resources Institute, which examines why the role of forests and land-use change under the Kyoto Protocol remains controversial

    F. Cross-Cutting Issues
1. Ozone Depletion and Climate Change

How to Salvage the Kyoto Protocol - article by Richard Benedick, discussing the flawed premises upon which the emissions reduction commitments were based

2. Trading, Joint Implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism

US Global Change Research Information Office Home Page - provides access to data and information on global environmental change research, adaptation/mitigation strategies and technologies, and global change related educational resources on behalf of the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and its participating Federal Agencies and Organizations

3. Problem Exercise: Liability and Compensation

Responsibility for Non-Compliance Under the Kyoto Protocol's Mechanisms for Cooperative Implementation - (PDF) discusses the four cooperative implementation (CI) mechanisms, which allow for the transfer of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions allowances between Parties to the Protocol

4. The Future of the Climate Regime

EPA Global Warming Site - the site offers an explanation of global warming, a chart tracking global temperatures, a reference guide to Government publications,and slides on the topic

The Pace Energy Project - The Pace Energy Project at Pace University has set up "Global Warming Central." This site lists key reports, speeches and treaties

The Challenge of Global Warming - this site offers a thorough introduction to the mechanic of the global warming, with linked pages on underlying chemical and scientific assumptions

Western Fuels - an Industry Perspective offers a distinctive break from the "green" pages listed above. Western Fuels has been called "an especially aggressive industry player" in the debate over energy regulations

Newly Added and Updated Climate and Environmental Reports - lists Congressional Research Service Reports from the National Library for the Environment

A Special Moment in History - an Atlantic Monthly article by Bill McKibben, arguing for population, technological, and lifestyle changes to safeguard the state of the planet's future