Chapter Fourteen: Protection of Habitat

I. Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance

    A. Introduction
Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (RAMSAR), 1971 - seeks to improve the conservation and management of internationally significant wetlands

Ramsar Bureau - includes important links to information regarding the Ramsar Convention

Coral Health and Monitoring Program (CHAMP) - establishes an international network of coral reef researchers, provides a data repository for historical data collected from coral reef areas and provides near real-time data products derived from satellite images and monitoring stations at coral reef areas

The Global Coral Reef Alliance - aims for the protection and sustainable management of coral reefs

Teaching Materials: Coral Reefs - provides supplemental materials on coral reefs

    B. The List of Wetlands of International Importance
Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Sites) - provides an excerpt from Global biodiversity: Status of the Earth's living resources
    C. Site Management and Wise Use
Best Management Practices for Wetlands - assists managers, landscape architects, resource technicians, engineers, and designers in approaching the wetland resource

Boondall Wetlands: MANAGEMENT-Ramsar - forms a significant component of the Moreton Bay Ramsar site

The History, Use and Management of Wetlands - describes a project in Lithuania dealing with wetland management

    D. Administration
Wetland Science Institute (WLI) - provides a group of technical experts to develop and apply scientific techniques needed to promote wetland conservation
    E. The Ramsar Convention in Practice
Wetlands International - summarises actions undertaken by Wetlands International in support of the objectives of the Ramsar Convention
II. Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage in Danger
    A. Background
Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage in Danger - defines the world's heritage by creating a list of natural and cultural sites whose irreplaceable value should be preserved for future generations and to ensure the sites' protection through international cooperation

EarthWatch Institute - promotes sustainable conservation of natural resources and cultural heritage by encouraging cooperation among scientists, educators and the general public

    B. The World Heritage List and List of World Heritage in Danger
Dangers of the World Heritage List - describes the process of how to put a natural and cultural site on the World Heritage in Danger list

South Africa Nominates Rock Art Park for World Heritage Status - reports the KwaZulu-Natal Nature Conservation Service (NCS) seeks to have World Heritage Site status for uKhahlamba-Drakensberg Park

    C. The World Heritage Committee
National Heritage Committee Home Page - provides information about the National Heritage Select Committe of the U.K. House of Commons

The 22nd Session of the World Heritage Committee, Kyoto, Japan - includes information about the World Heritage Committee from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan

    D. The World Heritage Fund
Financial Regulations for the World Heritage Fund - establishes special financial regulations to govern the operations of the Fund
III. The Polar Regions
TrackStar: Polar Regions - provides links to information on the polar region

Byrd Polar Research Center - excellent site for links and background information

The Arctic Cirlce - focusses on the peoples and environment of the Artic and Subarctic region

    A. Antarctica
Live From Antarctica - web site provides interactive communication with researchers and other interesting resources. Designed by NASA and the National Science Foundation

British Antarctic Survey- useful scientific information on current research

1. The Ice-Locked Continent

Virtual Antarctica Introduction - provides images and dispatches of TerraQuest's voyage to Antarctica

Planet Earth Home Page - Antarctica - provides various links to information on Antarctica

2. Territorial Claims and the Antarctic Treaty

Antarctic Treaty - guarantees freedom of scientific research and exchange of data, forbids nuclear explosions and the disposal of radioactive waste, prohibits military activities and opens all installations to international inspection

The Antarctic Treaty System - Environment - includes links to the Antarctic Treaty as well as other relevant legal instruments

USA Antarctic Treaty Information Exchange - reports U.S. activities taking place in Antarctica in accordance to the Antarctic Treaty

Antarctic Treaty Exchange of Information - reports Belgian activities taking place in Antarctica in accordance to the Washington Treaty on the Antarctic

3. Common Heritage of Mankind Status

Arctic and Antarctica Ecology - provides links to information on Antarctica and the Arctic

4. The 1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection

Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty 4 October 1991 - provides links to the full text of relevant documents as well as to the Protocol

The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty - Overview - includes the full text of the Protocol as well as the annexes

    B. The Arctic Region
Draft Arctic Treaty: An Arctic Council - by Donat Pharand, Professor Emeritus of International Law, University of Ottawa, outlines a treaty that would form a commission and secretariat to promote cooperation among member countries for peaceful purposes in the Arctic

Barents Euro Arctic Region - a databank providing environmental and economic information on the Russian regions near the Arctic and Scandinavia

International Arctic Environment Data Directory - provides the user community with an efficient and up-to-date service fo locating and assessing sources of arctic environmental data and information

Nunavut: Canada's newest territyory - provides the framework for the management of wildlife in Canada's newest territory

New Study: US Sites Responsible For Dixon Pollution In Arctic - reports that transboundary pollution from North America threatens health of Inuit people and wildlife

IV. International Protection of Forests
Native Forest Network - works to protect native forests worldwide by working to protect public lands, stop pollution from pulp and paper mills, reduce consumer demand for virgin wood and promote alternative fiber

Forest Operations and Environmental Protection - suggests ways to engage in Japanese forestry operations with less damage to the forests through the study of ecology, technology and economics

International Nature Conservation Policy and Legislation - includes links to legal instruments on global, pan-European, EU, and European regions bases

METLA: Finnish Forest Research Institute - an independent research organization under the Finnish Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, provides services and research-based information for policy-makers, industry, and the public

    A. Introduction
The World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Forestry: Forest Legislation - lists conventions, international agreements, international bodies for negotiations and more

WRI Publications and Papers on Forests - includes list of publications with summaries and links to purchasing online

Forestry & Research Resources on the Internet - includes links to national forest research centres, research organisations in Ireland, forest research abroad, Irish government and more

Forest Frontiers Initiative - provides comprehensive information on logging, mining, and other development activities within and around frontier forests as, or before, it happens

Center for International Forestry Research - contributes to the sustained well-being of people in developing countries, particularly in the tropics, through collaborative strategic and applied research and related activities in forest systems and forestry and promotes the transfer of appropriate new technologies and the adoption of new methods of social organization, for national development

1. State of the World's Forests

Greenpeace International: Ancient Forests Under Siege - provides a detailed map, news in various regions of the world, and press releases

Preserving Ancient/Old-Growth Forests - Green Fire Productions - provides information on how to take action in preserving old-growth forests in the U.S.

Tofino: Great Bear Rainforest - provides kayaking expeditions to the Great Bear Rainforest to promote interest in preserving the area's ecosystem

Logging Burma's Frontier Forests: Resources and the Regime - provides a description of the publication, how to order it, and additional links relevant to Burma's forests

    B. International Negotiations for a Broad Forest Policy
1. The UNCED Forest Principles

Agenda 21, Chapter 11: Combating Deforestation - provides full text of Chapter 11 on sustaining forests, forest lands and woodlands and related activities

2. The Intergovernmental Panel on Forest Policy (IPF)

Commission on Sustainable Development: Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests - reports on international co-operation in technological transfer for sustainable forest management

3. Sustainable Forest Management

Canadian Sustainable Forestry Certification Coalition - promotes the development of sustainable forest management standards in order to continually strive toward sustainable forest management, secure a sustainable supply of forest products, and ensure support for its practices in Canada and abroad

Resource for Tropical Forestry and Agroforestry - includes links to forest management information

Guide to Independently Certified Wood Products - includes products that have earned the label of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), which sets the highest standard for environmentally and socially responsible forest management

    C. Current Issues and Cross-Cutting Themes
1. International Trade and ITTA

Request for Information - ITTA 1994 - includes a message on the Forest Mailing list on forest research and studies

Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development: Agreements on Nature Conservation - offers information on various international agreements on nature conservation and terrestrial living resources

Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development: Friends of the Earth International - promotes conservation, retoration and rational use of the environment and natural resources through public education and campaigning at local, national and international levels as well as encourages international citizen action

2. International Financing for Forest Conservation

Thread Index of Using Remote Sensing Data in the Negotiation and Implementation of International Environmental Agreements - provides links to related archives

Global Forestry Policy - includes links to meetings, workshops and consultations

3. Forest Certification and Ecolabelling

Timber Trade Federation- information about certification efforts of forest management and forest products

4. Indigenous Peoples, Community Management and Forests

USDA Forest Service - aims to achieve quality land management under the sustainable multiple-use management concept to meet the diverse needs of the people

5. Institutional Coordination

Forest Action Network - campaigns to save the Great Bear rainforest

Raincoast Conservation Society - works to protect Canada's Great Bear rainforest by ensuring the long term survival of coastal bears, wild salmon and the interdependent life forms that define the ancient temperate rainforest

Rainforest Action Network - works to protect the Earth's rainforests and support the rights of their inhabitants through education, grassroots organizing, and non-violent direct action

Rainforest Alliance - develops and promotes economically viable and socially desirable alternatives to the destruction of tropical forests

Trees for the Future - promotes and supports reforestation and environmentally sustainable land use, in cooperation with local groups and individuals in their own communities around the world

Agroforestry E-Mail Newsletter - Send a message to and include your name, E-mail address, organization (or project name or description) and your location (country, state) to obtain a newsletter

V. Desertification
    A. The Problem of Desertification
Towards Solving the Global Desertification Problem (2) - Research on the Evaluation of Interaction between Desertification and Human Activities - provides a summary of the Desertification Research Project of the Japan Environment Agency

Desertification - Environment - Net Links - provides links to information on desertification around the world and the Convention to Combat Desertification

    B. The Causes of Desertification
Land Use - The Nature and Causes of Land Degradation and Desertification - provides links to various articles on desertification

Basic Facts on Desertification - includes a list of basic facts provided by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification

    C. 1977 Plan of Action to Combat Desertification
Agenda 21, Chapter 12: Managing Fragile Ecosystems: Combating Desertification And Drought - provides the complete text to Chapter 12
    D. The Convention to Combat Desertification
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification- aims to combat desertification in countries experience serious drought and/or desertification, particularly in Africa

United Nations Secretariat of the Convention to Combat Desertification - includes Contracting Parties information and general information