Resources - Adult Prisons and Jails

Government Reports

United States. The Department of Justice/ Bureau of Justice Statistics. Sexual Victimization Reported by Adult Correctional Authorities 2009-2011. Comp. by Allen Beck et. al. Washington, DC. January 2014.

United States. The Department of Justice/ Bureau of Justice Statistics. Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates, 2011-12. Comp. by Allen Beck. Washington, DC. May 2013.

United States. U.S. Department of Justice. A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations, Second Edition. Washington, DC: April 2013.

United States. The Department of Justice/ Bureau of Justice Statistics. Sexual Victimization Reported by Former State Prisoners, 2008. Comp. by Allen Beck and Candace Johnson. Washington, DC. May 2012.

United States. The Department of Justice/ Review Panel on Prison Rape. Report on Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails . Washington, DC. April 2012.

United States. Office of Inspector General. Enhanced Screening of BOP Correctional Officer Candidates Could Reduce Likihood of Misconduct. Washington, DC. September 2011.

United States. The Department of Justice/ Bureau of Justice Statistics. Sexual Victimization Reported by Adult Correctional Authorities 2007-2008 . Comp. by Allen Beck et. al. Washington, DC. January 2011.

United States. The Department of Justice/ Bureau of Justice Statistics. Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates 2008-09. Comp. by Allen Beck et. al. Washington, DC. August 2010.

United States. The Department of Justice/ National Institute of Justice. Risk Markers for Sexual Predation and Victimization in Prison. Comp by Warren et.al.. Washington, DC. May 2010.

United States. U.S. Department of Justice/ Office of Inspector General. The Department of Justice's Efforts to Prevent Staff Sexual Abuse of Federal Inmates. Washington, DC. September 2009.

United States. The Department of Justice/ National Prison Rape Elimination Commission. REPORT: Executive Summary. Washington, DC. June 23, 2009.

United States. The Department of Justice/ National Prison Rape Elimination Commission. REPORT. Washington, DC. June 23, 2009.

United States. The Department of Justice/ National Prison Rape Elimination Commission. Standards for the Prevention, Detection, Response and Monitoring of Sexual Abuse in Adult Prisons and Jails. Washington, DC. June 23, 2009.

United States. The Department of Justice/ National Prison Rape Elimination Commission. Standards for the Prevention, Detection, Response and Monitoring of Sexual Abuse in Lockups. Washington, DC. June 23, 2009.

United States. The Department of Justice/ National Institute of Justice. Gendered Violence and Safety: A Contextual Approach to Improving Security in Women’s Facilities (Part I: Improving Security in Women’s Facilities). Comp by Owens et.al.. Washington, DC. November 2008.

United States. The Department of Justice/ National Institute of Justice. Gendered Violence and Safety: A Contextual Approach to Improving Security in Women’s Facilities (Part II: Focus Group Methodology and Findings). Comp by Owens et.al.. Washington, DC. November 2008.

United States. The Department of Justice/ National Institute of Justice. Gendered Violence and Safety: Measuring Gendered Violence and Safety (Part III: Research Design and Methods). Comp by Owens et.al.. Washington, DC. November 2008.

United States. The Department of Justice/ Bureau of Justice Statistics. The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003: Sexual Victimization in Local Jails Reported by Inmates, 2007. Comp by Beck and Harrison. Washington, DC. June 2008.

United States. The Department of Justice/ Bureau of Justice Statistics. The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003: Sexual Victimization in State and Federal Prisons Reported by Inmates, 2007. Comp by Beck and Harrison. Washington, DC. December 2007.

United States. The Department of Justice/ Bureau of Justice Statistics. The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003: Sexual Violence Reported by Correctional Authorities, 2006. Comp by Beck, Harrison and Adams. Washington, DC. August 2007.

United States. US Department of Justice/ National Institute of Corrections. “Issues in Investigating Sexual Assaults in Correctional FacilitiesStaff Perspectives: Sexual Violence in Adult Prisons and Jails. Comp. by The Moss Group Inc. Washington, DC: June 2007.

United States. Department of Justice/ National Institute of Justice. The Culture of Prison Sexual Violence. Comp. Mark Fleisher and Jessie Krienert. Washington, DC: November 2006.

United States. Department of Justice/ Bureau of Justice Statistics. HIV in Prisons, 2004. Comp. Laura Maruschak. Washington, DC: November 2006.

United States. Department of Justice/ Bureau of Justice Assistance. Sexual Violence in the Texas Prison System. Comp. James Austin, et. al,. Washington, DC: September 2006.

United States. U.S. Department of Justice/ National Institute of Corrections. Correctional Internal Affairs Investigators: Job Analysis. Comp. by The Moss Group Inc. Washington, DC: August 2006.

United States. National Institute of Corrections. Staff Perspectives: Sexual Violence in Adult Prisons and Jails. Developed by The Moss Group Inc., under NIC cooperative agreement 05S18GJ10. Washington, DC: June 2006.

United States. Center for Disease Control. “HIV Transmission among Male Inmates in a State Prison System- Georgia, 1992-2005.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 55:15 (21 April 2006): 421-428.

The National Institute of Justice. “NIJ’s Response to the Prison Rape Elimination Act.” Corrections Today February 2006: 60-61.

United States. Office of Justice Programs/ National Institute of Justice. Extent, Nature and Consequences of Rape Victimization. Washington, DC: January 2006.

United States. The Department of Justice/ Bureau of Justice Statistics. The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003: Sexual Violence Reported by Correctional Authorities, 2005. Comp by Beck and Harrison. Washington, DC. 2006.

United States. National Institute of Corrections. The Prison Rape Elimination Act and Local Jails: The Facts. Developed by The Moss Group Inc., under NIC cooperative agreement 05S18GJ10. Washington, DC: 2006.

United States. The Department of Justice/ National Institute of Corrections. Gender Responsive Strategies for Women: Using Jail Exit Surveys to Improve Community Responses to Women Offenders. Comp. by Teri Martin and Becky Ney. Washington, DC. December 2005.

United States. The Department of Justice/ National Institute of Corrections. Gender Responsive Strategies for Women Offenders: Supervision of Women Defendants and Offenders in the Community. Comp. by Linda Sydney. Washington, DC. October 2005.

United States. Bureau of Justice Statistics. The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003: Sexual Violence Reported by Correctional Authorities, 2004. Comp. by Beck and Hughes. Washington, DC: July 2005.

United States. The Department of Justice/ National Institute of Corrections. The Gender Responsive Strategies Project: Jail Applications. Comp. by Susan McCampbell. Washington, DC. April 2005.

United States. Office of Inspector General. Deterring Staff Sexual Abuse of Federal Inmates. Washington, DC. April 2005.

United States. U.S. Department of Justice. A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations. Washington, DC: September 2004.

United States. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Data Collection for the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003. Washington, DC: June 2004.

United States. The Department of Justice/ Bureau of Justice Statistics. Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act. Washington, DC. February 5, 2004.

United States. Office of Justice Programs. DNA Evidence: Enhancing Impact from Crime Scene to Court Room. Comp. by The National Forensic Science Technology Center. Washington, DC: October 2003.

United States. U.S. Department of Justice/ Office of Justice Programs. Law Enforcement, Corrections and Forensic Technologies. Comp. by Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. Washington, DC: May 2001.

United States. Office of Justice Programs/ Office for Victim Services. Understanding DNA: A Guide for Victim Service Providers. Washington, DC: April 2001.

United States. National Institute of Justice. Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for Law Enforcement. Comp. by The Technical Working Group on Crime Scene Investigation. Washington, DC: January 2000.

United States. General Accounting Office. Women in Prison: Issues and Challenges Confronting U.S. Correctional Systems. Washington, DC. December 1999.

United States. General Accounting Office. Women in Prison: Sexual Misconduct by Correctional Staff. Washington, DC. June 1999.

United Nations. Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Violence Against Women, Report of the Special Rapporteur, on violence against women, it's causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 1997/44, Addendum, Report to the mission to the United States of America on the Issue of violence against women in state and federal prisons. New York. January 4, 1999.

United States. The Department of Justice/ Federal Bureau of Prisons. Sexual Abuse/Assault Prevention and Intervention, A System Response and Agency Plan. Washington, DC. July 1998.

United States. The Department of Justice/ National Institute of Corrections. Women in Jail: Legal Issues. Comp. by Collins and Collins. Washington, DC. December 1996.

United States. National Institute of Justice. What Every Law Enforcement Officer Should Know About DNA Evidence. Comp. by The National Commission on the Future of DNA Evidence. Washington, DC: (no date listed).

Publications for Correctional Agencies and Staff

Yarussi, Jaime M. and Brenda V. Smith. Juveniles Convicted as Adults: An Annotated Bibliography of Current Research. Washington, DC. April 2012.

Levan Miller, Kristine. '"The Darkest Figure of Crime: Perceptions of Reasons for Male Inmates to Not Report Sexual Assault", Justice Quarterly, 27: 5, 692 — 712 (2010).

Carle, Susan D., Kathy Tuznik, Aaron Brand and Brenda V. Smith. Labor and Employment Law: Tools for Prevention, Investigation and Discipline of Staff Sexual Misconduct in Custodial Settings. Washington, DC. October 2009.

Smith, Brenda V. and Jaime M. Yarussi. Legal Responses to Sexual Violence in Custody: State Criminal Laws Prohibiting Sexual Abuse of Individuals under Custodial Supervision. Washington, DC. October 2009.

Moster, Aviva N. and Elizabeth L. Jeglic. “Prison Warden Attitudes Toward Prison Rape and Sexual Assault: Findings Since the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA)The Prison Journal, 2009.

American Bar Association. Internal Exile: Collateral Consequences of Conviction in Federal Laws and Regulations. Comp by. The American Bar Association Commission on Effective Criminal Sanctions and The Public Defender Service of the District of Columbia. Chicago, Il. 2009.

Moss, Andie “The Prison Rape Elimination Act: Implications for Women and Girls.” Corrections Today August 2007: 1-4.

Simonian, Nairi M. and Brenda V. Smith. “Integrity in Jail Operations: Addressing Employee/ Offender Relationships.” American Jails. July/August 2006: 9-19.

Smith, Brenda V., Nairi M. Simonian and Jaime M. Yarussi. “The Health Concerns of Incarcerated Women- Part 2: Communicable Diseases and Treatment Issues.” Women Girls and Criminal Justice 7:4 (June/July 2006): 49-56, 64.

Simonian, Nairi M. and Brenda V. Smith. “Policy on Worker Relations Helps Ensure Office Integrity.” Sheriff May-June 2006: 27-28.

Eggen, Dan and Shankar Vedantam. “Polygraph Results Often in Question.” The Washington Post 1 May 2006, Final Ed., Sec A: 01.

Smith, Brenda V., Nairi M. Simonian and Jaime M. Yarussi. “The Health Concerns of Incarcerated Women- Part 1: Profiles, Chronic Diseases, and Conditions.” Women Girls and Criminal Justice 7:3 (April/May 2006): 33-34, 39-45.

Jordan et.al. “The Prison Rape Elimination Act: What Police Chiefs Need to Know.” The Police Chief April 2006: 156-158.

Simonian, Nairi and Smith, Brenda V. A memo regarding Anti-Fraternization policies and case law in the Ninth Circuit. The Department of Justice/ National Institute of Corrections Project on Addressing Prison Rape. Washington, DC. January 2006.

Moss, Andie and A.T. Wall “Addressing the Challenge of Inmate Rape.” Corrections Today August 2005: 1-4.

Henslet, et. al,. “Examining the Characteristics of Male Sexual Assault Targets in a Southern Maximum Security Prison.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 20:6 (June 2005): 667-679.

Hensley, et. al,. “The Evolving Nature of Prison Argot and Sexual Hierarchies.” The Prison Journal. 83:3 (September 2003): 289-300.

Robertson, James. “Rape among Incarcerated Men Sex and Coercion and STDs.” AIDS, Patient Care and STDs. 17: 8 (June 2003): 423-430.

Susan McCampbell and Alen L. Ault. Ed.D, Lessons Learned, Miles to Go: Preventing Staff Sexual Misconduct with Offender, May 2003.

Hensley, et. al,. “Masturbation Uncovered: Autoeroticism in a Female Prison.” The Prison Journal. 81:4 (December 2001): 491-501.

National Sherriff’s Association. “Investigating Allegations of Staff Sexual Misconduct with Inmates: Myths and Realities.” Sheriffs' Magazine. November - December 2001.

Dumond, Robert W. “The Impact and Recovery of Prisoner Rape.” A National Conference Not Part of the Penalty: Ending Prisoner Rape. Washington, DC. October 19, 2001.

Smith, Brenda V., “Sexual Abuse Against Women in Prison.” American Bar Association Criminal Justice Magazine, 16:1 Spring, 2001.

Hensley, et. al,. “Introduction: The History of Prison Sex Research.” The Prison Journal. 80:4 (December 2000): 360-367.

Alarid, Leanne Fiftal. “Sexual Assault and Coercion among Incarcerated Women Prisoners.” The Prison Journal. 80:4. (December 2000): 391-406.

Greer, Kimberly. “The Changing Nature of Interpersonal Relationships in Women’s Prisons.” The Prison Journal. 80:4 (December 2000): 442-468.

Eigenburg, Helen M. “Correctional Officers and Their Perceptions of Homosexuality, Rape and Prostitution in Male Prisoners.” The Prison Journal. 80:4 (December 2000): 415-433.

Layman, Elizabeth, Susan McCampbell and Andie Moss, “Sexual Misconduct in Corrections.” American Jails Magazine November/December 2000.

Mullendore, Kristine and Laurie Beever. “Sexually Abused Female Inmates in State and Local Correctional Institutions.” Women Girls & Criminal Justice, 1:6 October/November 2000: 81-96.


McSherry, Bernadette and Margaret Somerville. “Sexual Activity among Institutionalized Persons in Need of Special Care.” Windsor Book of Access Justice. (1998).

Coggeshall, John. “Ladies Behind Bars: A Luminal Gender as a Cultural Mirror.” Anthropology Today. 4: 4 (August 1988): 6-8.


Lager, Robert. “Lesbianism Among Female Prisoners: Participants and Non-participants.” Criminal Justice and Behavior. 14:4 (December 1987): 448-467.

Schiro, George. “Special Considerations for Sexual Assault Evidence” The Louisiana State Police Crime Laboratory: (no date listed).

Dumond, Robert W. “Confronting America’s Most Ignored Crime Problem: The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003.” The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 31, 2003. 354-60.

Dumond, Robert W. “Inmate Sexual Assault: The Plague That Persists.” The Prison Journal, 18:4. 2000. 407-14.

Hensley, Christopher and Richard Tewksbury. "Wardens' Perceptions of Prison Sex." The Prison Journal, 85:2, 2005. 186-197.

Jenness, Valerie and Cheryl L. Maxson, Kristy N. Matsuda, Jennifer Macy Sumner. “Violence in California Correctional Facilities: An Empirical Examination of Sexual Assault.” April 27, 2007.

Struckman-Johnson, Cindy and David Struckman-Johnson. "Sexual Coercion Reported by Women in Three Midwestern Prisons." Journal of Sex Research, 39:3, 2002. 217-227.

Struckman-Johnson, Cindy and David Struckman-Johnson. "Sexual Coercion Rates in Seven Midwestern Prison Facilities for Men." Prison Journal, 80:4, 2000. 379-390.

Struckman-Johnson, Cindy and David Struckman-Johnson. “A Comparison of Sexual Coercion Experiences Reported by Men and Women in Prison.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21:12, 2006. 1591-1615.

Stewart, Elaine C. “The Sexual Health and Behavior of Male Prisoners: The Need for Research.” The Howard Journal. 46, 2007.

Wolff, Nancy, et al. “Sexual Violence Inside Prisons: Rates of Victimization.” Journal of Urban Health. 83:2, 2006.

Law Review and Journal Publications

Smith, Brenda V. "Uncomfortable Places, Close Spaces: Female Correctional Workers’ Sexual Interactions With Men and Boys in Custody" UCLA Law Review UCLA School of Law Los Angeles, CA; Vol. 59 Issue 6: 1690 (2012).

Smith, Brenda V. “The Prison Rape Elimination Act: Implementation and Unresolved Issues Criminal Law Brief American University Washington College of Law Washington, DC; 10-18 (Spring 2008).

Smith, Brenda V. and Jaime Yarussi. “Prosecuting Sexual Violence in Correctional Settings: Examining Prosecutors’ Perceptions.” Criminal Law Brief American University Washington College of Law Washington, DC; 19-28 (Spring 2008).

Yarussi, Jaime M. “The Violence Against Women Act: Denying Needed Resources Based on Criminal History.” Criminal Law Brief of American University Washington College of Law Washington, DC; 29-36 (Spring 2008).

Jordan, Mary. “Care to Prevent HIV Infection in Prison: A Moral Right Recognized by Canada While the United States Lags Behind.Inter-American Law Review. 37 (Winter 2006).

Tarzwell, Sydney. “The Gender Lines are Marked with Razor Wire: Addressing State Prison Policies and Practices for the Management of Transgender Prisoners.” Columbia Human Rights Law Review. 38 (Fall 2006).

Hammett, Theodore. “HIV/ AIDS and Other Infectious Diseases among Correctional Inmates.” American Journal of Public Health. 96:6 (June 2006).

Smith, Brenda V. “Analyzing Prison Sex: Reconciling Self Expression with Safety.American University, Washington College of Law Human Rights Brief 13:3 (Spring 2006): 17-22.

Sigler, Mary. “By the Light of Virtue: Prison Rape and the Corruption of Character.Iowa Law Review. 91 (January 2006).

Smith, Brenda V. “Sexual Abuse of Women in United States Prisons: A Modern Collary of Slavery.Fordham Urban Law Journal Vol. 33 (2006): 571-607.

Mann, Rebecca. “A Review of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Legal Issues.” Law and Sexuality 15:91 (2006).

Smith, Brenda V. “Rethinking Prison Sex: Self Expression and Safety.” Columbia Journal of Gender and the Law, 15 (2006): 185-234.

Wyall, Rachel. “Male Rape in US Prisons: Are Conjugal Visits the Answer?” Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law. 37 (2006).

Ristroph, Alice. “Sexual Punishments.” Columbia Journal of Gender and the Law. 15 (2006).

Dumond, Robert W. “The Impact of Prisoner Sexual Violence.Journal of Legislation. 32 (2006).

Reis, David. “Duty to Protect Claims by Inmates after the Prison Rape Elimination Act.” Journal of Law and Policy. 13 (2005).

Peek, Christine. “Breaking Out of the Prison Hierarchy: Transgender Prisoners, Rape and the Eighth Amendment.” Santa Clara Law Review. 44 (2004).

Henslet et. al,. “Characteristics of Prison Sexual Assault Targets in Male Oklahoma Correctional Facilities.Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 18:6 (June 2003): 595-606.

Smith, Brenda V. “Watching You Watching Me.” Yale Journal of Law and Feminism, Volume 15 Number 2, 2003.

Mann, Christopher and John Cronan. “Forecasting Sexual Abuse in Prison: The Prison Subculture of Masculinity as a Backdrop for Deliberate Indifference.” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 92 (Fall 2001).

Robertson, James. “Cruel and Unusual Punishment in United States Prisons: Sexual Harassment among Male Inmates.” American Criminal Law Review. 36 (Winter 1999).

Eigenberg, Helen M. “Homosexuality in Male Prisons: Demonstrating the Need for a Constructionist Approach.” Criminal Justice Review. 17:2 (19920: 219-234.

Buchanan, Kim Shayo. “Impunity: Sexual Abuse in Women's Prisons.” Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, 2007. (see also: "This is Happening in Our Country": Two Testimonials of Survivors of Prison Rape)

Flesher, Flyn L. “Cross-Gender Supervision in Prisons and the Constitutional Right of Prisoners to Remain Free from Rape. William and Mary Journal of Women and the Law. 13: 841, 2007.

Sigler, Mary, “Just Deserts, Prison Rape, and the Pleasing Fiction of Guideline Sentencing.” Arizona State Law Journal. 38:561, 2006.

Advocacy Group Reports

Human Rights Campaign . Transgender Americans: A Handbook for Understanding. Washington, DC: (unknown).

Urban Institute. Addressing Sexual Violence in Prisons: A National Snapshot of Approaches and Highlights of Innovative Strategies. Comp. Zweig et. al,. Washington, DC: October 2006.

American Civil Liberties Union. Abandoned and Abused: Orleans Parish Prisoners in the Wake of Hurricane Katrina. Comp. by the ACLU National Prison Project with contributions by the ACLU of Louisiana and the ACLU Human Rights Program. Washington, DC: August 2006.

Vera Institute. Confronting Confinement: A Report of the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America’s Prisons. Comp. by John J. Gibbons and Nicholas de B. Katzenbach. Washington, DC: June 2006.

American Constitution Society for Law and Policy. The Prison Litigation Reform Act- A Proposal for Closing the Loophole for Rapists. Comp. Deborah Golden. Washington, DC: June 2006.

Stop Prisoner Rape. Hope for Healing: Information for Survivors of Sexual Assault in Detention. Los Angeles, California: 2006.

The Ford Foundation. Close to Home: CASE Studies of Human Rights Work in the United States. New York: 2004.

Human Rights Watch. NO ESCAPE: Male Rape in U.S. Prisons. New York: April 2001.

Amnesty International. Abuse of Women in Custody: Sexual Misconduct and Shackling of Pregnant Women -- A State-by-State Survey of Policies and Practices in the USA, New York: USA: March 2001.

Amnesty International. Justice for Women Prisoners: The Human Rights of Women Prisoners. New York: April 2000.

Amnesty International. Not Part of My Sentence, Violations of Human Rights of Women in Custody. New York, USA: March 1999.

Human Rights Watch. All Too Familiar: Sexual Abuse of Women in U.S. State Prisons. Comp. by Women’s Rights Watch. New York: December 1996.

Other Resources

These resources are available in non-electronic formats only. For more information on these publications contact endsilence@wcl.american.edu

McKelvey, Tara, ed. One of the Guys: Women as Aggressors and Torturers. California: Seal Press, 2007.

Eigenberg, Helen and Agnes Baro. "If You Drop the Soap in the Shower You Are on Your Own: Images of Male Rape in Selected Prison Movies." Sexuality & Culture, 7:4, 2003. 56-89.

English, Kim and Peggy Heil. "Prison Rape: What We Know Today." Corrections Compendium, 30:5, 2005. 1-5, 42 - 44.

Hensley, Christopher, Robert W. Dumond, Richard Tewksbury, and Doris A. Dumond. "Possible Solutions for Preventing Inmate Sexual Assault: Examining Wardens' Beliefs." American Journal of Criminal Justice, 27:1, 2002. 19-33.

Hensley, Christopher, Mary Koscheski, and Richard Tewksbury. "The Impact of Institutional Factors on Officially Reported Sexual Assaults in Prisons.” Sexuality & Culture, 7:4, 2003. 16-26.

Hensley, Christopher, Tammy Castle and Richard Tewksbury. "Sexual Coercion in a Southern Female Correctional Facility." Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 37:2, 2002. 77-87.

Hensley, Christopher and Richard Tewksbury. "Inmate-to-Inmate Prison Sexuality: A Review of Empirical Studies." Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 3:3, 2002. 226-243.

Hensley, Christopher, Richard Tewksbury, and Mary Koscheski. "The Characteristics and Motivations Behind Female Prison Sex.” Women & Criminal Justice, 3, 2002. 125-139.

McCampbell, Susan W. and Elizabeth Layman. “The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 and Law Enforcement Agencies: What Every Law Enforcement Executive Needs to Know Instructor’s Guide, Lesson Plans and Resources.” Center for Innovative Public Policies, Inc. May 2007.

National Judicial College. “What Judges Need to Know About Prison Rape: The Prison Rape Elimination Act.” CD-ROM (Bureau of Justice Assistance, 2008).

National District Attorneys Association. “The Prosecution of Prison Rape and the Prison Rape Elimination Act: A Model Curriculum for Prosecutors and the Prosecution of Prison Rape: The Prison Rape Elimination Act.” CD-ROM (Bureau of Justice Assistance, 2008).

Sumner, Jennifer Macy and Kristy N. Matsuda. “Shining Light in Dark Corners: An Overview of Prison Rape Elimination Legislation and Introduction to Current Research.” University of California, Irvine, 2006. (unpublished).

Wolff, Nancy, Jing Shi, and Cynthia L. Blitz. "Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Types and Sources of Victimization Inside Prison." Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, December 2006.

Worley, Robert, James W. Marquart and Janet L. Mullings. "Prison Guard Predators: An Analysis of Inmates Who Established Inappropriate Relationships with Prison Staff, 1995-1998." Deviant Behavior, 24:2, 2003. 175-194.