International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia: Chronology

2002 | 2003 | 2004 | 2005 | 2006 | 2007 | Current

15 December 2006: In her address to the Security Council, Prosecutor Del Ponte says that in her view unless the Security Council modifies the seniority conditions under Rule 11 bis, no more indictees can be transferred to local courts for trial and the ICTY will not complete its caseload by 2008. She also requests the support of the Security Council in encouraging states to arrest the six remaining fugitives.

15 December 2006: In his address to the Security Council, ICTY President Pocar says that all trials will be completed no later than 2009 and that all appeals are expected to be addressed within two years of the end of trials. However, he also indicated that this timeframe would be influenced by the success of the multi-accused trials and in arresting the six outstanding fugitives, in particular Ratko Mladic and Radovan Karadzic.

13 December 2006: In the Gotovina et al. case, in an attempt to “ensure a fair and expeditious trial,” the Trial Chamber asks the prosecutor to “propose means of reducing the scope of the indictment by at least one third” by reducing the number of criminal counts or crime scenes addressed.

8 December 2006: In the Seselj case, the Appeals Chamber reverses the Trial Chamber decision imposing standby counsel, “nullifies” the opening trial proceedings, and orders that trial restart at such time as Seselj is able to fully participate in proceedings “as a self-represented accused.” It determines that the Trial Chamber “abused its discretion by immediately ordering the imposition of standby counsel, without first establishing additional obstructionist behavior on the part of Seselj warranting that imposition” and giving Seselj a “real chance to effectively exercise the right to self-representation.” The Trial Chamber is not to re-impose standby counsel “unless Seselj exhibits obstructionist behaviour fully satisfying the Trial Chamber that, in order to ensure a fair and expeditious trial, Seselj requires the assistance of standby counsel.” At that point, Seselj should be allowed to select his counsel from a list. If he nevertheless refuses to select counsel, counsel may be assigned by the Court.  In response, Seselj informs the Tribunal that he will end his hunger strike and receive medical attention.

1 December 2006: In the Seselj case, trial is postponed until further notice due to the accused’s deteriorating health.

 30 November 2006:  In the Seselj case, the Tribunal “expresses its grave concern about the actions of the accused Vojislav Seselj, who by refusing to accept food, medicine, and medical care while in the custody of the Tribunal's Detention Unit is seriously jeopardizing his health” and announces that he has been moved to the prison hospital so that his health may be monitored more closely. Seselj refuses to be treated by Dutch doctors but has not yet supplied the Tribunal with the name of a doctor whom he would find acceptable.

30 November 2006: In the Blaskic case, the contempt trial of Domagoj Margetic, a Croatian freelance journalist accused of revealing the names of protected witnesses, begins.

30 November 2006: In the Galic case, the Appeals Chamber dismisses all grounds of appeal by General Stanislav Galic, former commander of the VRS Sarajevo Romanija Corps. With regard to the prosecutor’s appeal of Galic’s sentence, the Appeals Chamber finds that, although the Trial Chamber did not err in its factual findings and correctly noted the principles governing sentencing, “the sentence of only 20 years was . . . unreasonable and plainly unjust, in that it underestimated the gravity of Galic’s criminal conduct.”  As a consequence, it imposes a life sentence on Galic for his role in terrorizing the civilian population of Sarajevo through sniping and shelling the city from September 1992 to August 1994.

28 November 2006: In the Simic et al. case, the Appeals Chamber reverses Blagoje Simic’s conviction for participation in a joint criminal enterprise, finding that    he was not informed that he was being accused of this form of criminal responsibility until the Prosecution had finished presenting its case, which rendered the trial unfair.  Moreover, it reverses Simic’s conviction for the crime against humanity of persecution insofar as it was based on cruel and inhumane treatment. The remaining bases if his persecution conviction are upheld and his sentenced is reduced from 17 to 15 years.

27 November 2006: In the Seselj case, trial begins without accused Vojislav Seselj in attendance. As a consequence of Seselj’s persistent refusal to appear despite warnings issued by both the Appeals and Trial Chambers and his failure to make submissions regarding his conduct, the Trial Chamber determines that the accused’s self-representation “has substantially obstructed the proper and expeditious conduct of the proceedings” and finds that “permanent assignment of counsel to represent the accused . . . is at this point justified.”  As a consequence, it determines that Seselj’s future participation in the proceedings will be through independent counsel Tjarda Eduard Van der Spoel.

23 November 2006:   In the Blaskic case, the Appeals Chamber rejects the prosecution’s request for review of its 2004 judgment in light of new evidence establishing that Timohir Blaskic gave the order for the massacre of 100 Bosnian Muslim civilians in village of Ahmici in April 1993 and was responsible for crimes committed in the village of Grbavica. In its decision, the Appeals Chamber finds that the prosecution's request for review did not contain “new facts” as required by the Tribunal’s Rules of Procedure and Evidence, but included additional evidence related to facts that had already been considered. In March 2000, the Trial Chamber sentenced Blaskic, a former commander of Croatian forces, to 45 years imprisonment; however the Appeals Chamber acquitted him of the most serious charges and reduced his sentence to nine years.  Blaskic was then released because he had already been in custody for eight years.

22 November 2006 In the Seselj case, the Trial Chamber formally warns Vojislav Seselj that if he does not appear at today’s status conference his stand-by counsel will take over his defense. Seselj, who has been on a hunger strike since November 11th, tells the Tribunal that he will not attend because “he is feeling too weak,” “his voice is not as strong as he wishes it to be” and “he can't bear the travel.”  The Trial Chamber, however, decides that his absence, whether it is a consequence of either “the physical state caused by himself or his conscious decision not to come” constitutes “disruptive behavior."  Consequently, it invites Seselj to clarify his behavior in a written motion to be submitted by Friday November 24th. He will be able to expand his arguments orally at the pre-trial conference on Monday November 27th. If he decides to do neither, the Chamber will interpret it as a waiver of his right to state his views and will make its final decision regarding his right to self-representation.

21 November 2006:   In the Perisic case, the prosecution is invited to propose by December 4th a means of reducing the scope of the indictment against Momcilo Perisic, former Chief of General Staff of the VJ (Yugoslav Army), by “at least a third” by either reducing the number of counts charged or eliminating some of the sites where the crimes were committed.

17 November 2006: In the Kovacevic case, the Referral Bench orders that the case against Vladimir Kovacevic be referred to the authorities of the Republic of Serbia should he be found competent to stand trial. This is the first case referred by the Tribunal to Serbia in accordance with Tribunal Rule 11 bis.  The Tribunal provisionally released Kovacevic to Serbia in June 2004 and found him unfit to enter a plea or stand trial in April 2006.

16 November 2006:  In the Martic case, the defense ends its case four days before the deadline. The defense and prosecution are scheduled to deliver their closing arguments on January 10 and 11, 2007.

15 November 2006:  In its first judgment in a case transferred from the ICTY, the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina convicts Radovan Stankovic of crimes against humanity including rape and sentences him to 16 years in prison. Stankovic was the first ICTY indictee transferred to a national court under the Rule 11 bis procedure as part of the Tribunal's completion strategy.

14 November 2006: In the Prlic et al. case, the Trial Chamber cuts the time allotted to the prosecution for its case by more than a quarter in order to ensure that the trial will be completed in 2008 in accordance with the timetable established by the Security Council. Additionally, the Trial Chamber rules that in the future any time spent addressing an objection will be subtracted from the time allotted to the party making the objection.

8 November 2006:  In the Seselj case, the judges order the prosecution to drop five charges against Seselj and scale back the scope of their evidence against him in order to speed up the case. 

26 October 2006:  In the Gotovina and Cermak and Markac cases, the Appeals Chamber confirms the Trial Chamber's decision to join Ante Gotovina, Ivan Cermak and Mladen Markac in one indictment and try them together for crimes committed in connection with “Operation Storm” in the Krajina region of Croatia.

25 October 2006 In the Haradinaj et al. case, the Trial Chamber grants the Prosecution's motion to amend the indictment to add new charges against Ramush Haradinaj, former senior commander of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), and Idriz Balaj and Lahi Brahimaj, former members of the KLA.

25 October 2006:  In the Seselj case, due to the Appeals Chamber's reversal of its decision to assign Seselj defense counsel the Trial Chamber delays the start of the trial.  It also orders the Registry to assign new stand-by counsel to assist, when requested, with Seselj’s defense and to take his defense over either temporarily or permanently if he continues to “substantially obstruct the proper proceedings in his case” despite warnings to desist.  A new start date for the trial has not been set.  

20 October 2006:  In the Seselj case, the Appeals Chamber reverses the Trial Chamber’s decision assigning counsel to represent Vojislav Seselj against his opposition due to the “the absence of a specific [prior] warning to Seselj.”  Nevertheless, the Appeals Chamber determines that “should [Seselj’s] self-representation subsequent to this Decision substantially obstruct the proper and expeditious proceedings in his case, the Trial Chamber will be justified in promptly assigning him counsel after allowing Seselj the right to be heard with respect to his subsequent behaviour.”

18 October 2006: In the Gotovina and Cermak and Markac cases, the Trial Chamber rejects a request by the Croatian government to appear as amicus curiae (friend of the court) because the matters it wants to address are primarily factual and the Court generally accords amicus status only for the determination of legal issues. Moreover, the matters facts Croatia wants to present are too broad in relation to the indictment to be helpful to the Chamber.

18 October 2006: In the Haradinaj et al. case, the Trial Chamber suspends UNMIK’s decision to allow Ramush Haradinaj to be interviewed on a Pristina TV channel in his role as the president of the Alliance for the Future of Kosovo and requests more information about the appearance from UNMIK, the Office of the Prosecutor and the accused.  Haradinaj has been provisionally released and is allowed to engage in political activity authorized by UNMIK.

13 October 2006:  In the Blaskic case, the initial appearance of Domagoj Margetic is held. Margetic, a Croatian journalist, is accused of revealing the names of witnesses on his personal website between 7 July and 2 August 2006 despite receiving explicit advance warning that the material was confidential prohibited from publication by court order.

11 October 2006: In the Prlic et al. case, the Trial Chamber rejects a request by the Croatian government to appear as amicus curiae (friend of the court) because the matters it wants to address are primarily factual and the Court generally accords amicus status only for the determination of legal issues. Moreover, the matters fall outside the scope of the indictment. Finally, the Chamber states that it would not be in the interests of justice “to authorize a state, whose former political and military leaders are mentioned in the indictment as members of a joint criminal enterprise, to intervene in the procedure.”

8 October 2006: In the Seselj case, Seselj is reelected by unanimous vote as the head of the Serbian Radical Party, a nationalist organization  that currently controls a plurality of seats in the Serbian parliament.

5 October 2006:  In the Jokic case, Miodrag Jokic, a former Yugoslav naval commander who pled guilty to war crimes committed during the 1991 attack on Dubrovnik, is transferred to Denmark to serve his seven year sentence.

3 October 2006:  In the Rasevic and Tovic case, Mitar Rasevic and Savo Todovic are transferred from the custody of the Tribunal to the war crimes section of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

27 September 2006:  In the Krajisnik case, Momcilo Krajisnik is sentenced to 27 years imprisonment by the Trial Chamber.  Krajisnik is found guilty of participation in a joint criminal enterprise to commit crimes against humanity (persecution, extermination, murder, deportation, forced transfer) and a violation of the laws or customs of war (murder) against Bosnian Muslims and Bosnian Croats.  Krajisnik is found not guilty of genocide and complicity in genocide due to the fact that the evidence “does not show that the crime of genocide formed part of the common objective of the joint criminal enterprise . . . , nor that Mr Krajisnik had the specific intent necessary for genocide.” 

27 September 2006:  In the Blaskic case, the Appeal Chamber rejects all grounds of appeal by Ivica Marijacic and Markica Rebic and affirms their fine of 15,000 Euros each for contempt of court.  However, instead of requiring the appellants to pay their fines within 30 days as required by the Trial Chamber, it determines that they may pay in three monthly installments.  In March 2006, Marijacic and Rebic were found guilty of disclosing information regarding the testimony of a protected witness.

22 September 2006:  In the Ljubicic case, Pasko Ljubicic is transferred to Sarajevo to be tried before the war crimes section of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Ljubicic is charged with crimes against Bosnian Muslim civilians in the Lasva Valley in central Bosnia and Herzegovina between January and July 1993.

20 September 2006:  In the Strugar case, the Appeals Chamber declares proceedings closed after accepting the withdrawal of appeals by both the defense and prosecution due to Strugar’s deteriorating health and old age.  Strugar was sentenced to eight years imprisonment in January 2005 for war crimes connected to the JNA's 1991 attack on Dubrovnik, Croatia.

7 September  2006:  Former Bosnian Serb police chief Stevan Todorovic, released from ICTY custody in 2005 after serving part of a 10-year sentence for the crime against humanity of persecution, is found dead of a gunshot wound at his home. Todorvic had been acting as a prosecution witness in several ICTY cases.

4 September 2006: In the Rasevic and Todovic case, the Appeals Chamber dismisses all of Savo Todovic grounds of appeal and affirms the decision of the Referral Bench to refer the case to the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Todovic and Mitar Rasevic are charged with crimes against humanity against Bosnian Muslims and other non-Serbs imprisoned in the “KP Dom” detention facility in Foca between April 1992 and October 1994.

1 September 2006: Haradin Bala, a former Kosovo Liberation Army prison guard, is granted short-term provisional release from the Tribunal's Detention Unit in order to participate in the memorial service and mourning period for his brother.

30 August 2006: In the Mrksic case, the defense begins its case.

29 August 2006: In the Krajisnik case, the parties begin their closing statements.

30 August 2006: In the Blaskic case, Josip Jovic, former editor-in-chief of the Croatian daily Slobodna Dalmacija, is found guilty of contempt of the Tribunal and ordered to pay a fine of 20,000 Euros. The Trial Chamber finds that Jovic published closed session court transcripts and parts of a witness statement given to the Office of the Prosecutor by Croatian President Stjepan Mesic, “stymie[ing] the Tribunal’s ability to safeguard the evidence of a protected witness and risk[ing] undermining confidence in the Tribunal’s ability to grant effective protective measures.”

29 August 2006: In the Krajisnic case, closing arguments begin.

21 August 2006: In the Seselj case, the Trial Chamber determines that, due to his ongoing obstructionist, disruptive, and disrespectful behavior, Vojislav Seselj will no longer be allowed to represent himself, and instead will be assigned defense counsel for the remainder of the proceedings. As a consequence, from now on Seselj’s participation in the proceedings “will be through Counsel unless, having heard from Counsel, the Chamber determines otherwise.”

21 August 2006: In the Popovic et al. case, the trial resumes after the summer break.

17 August 2006: In the Prlic et al. case, the trial resumes after the summer break.

15 August 2006: In the Martic case, the trial resumes after the summer break.

7 August 2006: In the Milutinovic et al. case, the trial resumes after the summer break.

14 July 2006: In the Popovic et al. case, the trial begins. Vujadin Popovic, Ljubisa Beara, Drago Nikolic, Ljubomir Borovcanin, Radivoje Miletic, Milan Gvero and Vinko Pandurevic are charged with genocide; conspiracy to commit genocide; and the crimes against humanity of extermination, murder, persecutions on racial or religious grounds, forcible transfer, and deportation in relation to the ethnic cleansing of Bosnian Muslims from the Srebrenica “safe haven” in July 1995. Zdravko Tolimir is charged under the same indictment but is still at large. Due to the Tribunal’s summer recess, Radivoje Miletiæ and Milan Gvero are granted provisional release until August 14th and the trial is scheduled to resume on August 21st.

13 July 2006: In the Zelenovic case, Dragan Zelenovic fails to enter a plea in his second appearance before the Tribunal. Judge Bonomy decides to allow Zelenovic to postpone his plea a second time.

13 July 2005: Judge Ole Bjørn Støle (Norway) is sworn in as reserve ad litem judge on the Popovic et al. trial.

11 July 2006: In the Krajisnik case, contempt charges brought against former Bosnian Serb Prime Minister Branko Djeric for his failure to respond to a subpoena to appear as a witness are dropped after he appears before the Tribunal to testify.

11 July 2006: In the Blaskic case, the contempt trial of Josip Jovic begins.

10 July 2006: In the Milutinovic et al. case, the trial of six former high-level political and military leaders of Serbia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) begins. Milan Milutinovic, Nikola Šainovic, Dragoljub Ojdanic, Nebojša Pavkovic, Vladimir Lazarevic and Sreten Lukic are charged with crimes against Kosovo Albanians and other non-Serbs living in Kosovo in 1999.

4 July 2006: In the Ljubicic case, the Appeals Chamber affirms the decision to refer the case against Pasko Ljubicic to the War Crimes Chamber of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Ljubicic, former commander of the 4th Military Police Battalion of the Croatian Defence Council, is charged with crimes against humanity and war crimes committed against Bosnian Muslim civilians in the Lasva Valley in central Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1993.

3 July 2006: In the Krajisnik case, the Trial Chamber requests the suspension of the arrest warrant issued last week against Branko Djeric, former Prime Minister of Republika Srpska, after Djeric initiates contact with the Trial Chamber and expresses his willingness to comply with the subpoena requiring him to appear as a witness.

3 July 2006: In the Blaskic case, the trial of Josip Jovic for contempt of court, due to begin today, is adjourned until July 11th due to the non-attendance in court of the accused. Jovic, a former editor of the Croatian newspaper Slobodna Dalmacija, is accused of violating a court order providing that the identity of a protected witness should not be made public.

3 July 2006: Judge Kimberley Prost (Canada) is sworn in as an ad litem judge on the Popovic et al. trial.

30 June 2006: In the Oric case, Naser Oric, a former senior commander of Bosnian Muslim forces in and around Srebrenica, is convicted of failing to take steps to prevent the murder and cruel treatment of several Serb prisoners. Finding that his criminal responsibility is limited due to the abysmal personal and circumstantial conditions in the area at the time in question, the judges sentence him to two years imprisonment. Because Oric has already spent more than three years in detention, he will be immediately released.

27 June 2006: In the Krajisnik case, the Trial Chamber issues an arrest warrant against Branko Djeric, former Prime Minister of Republika Srpska, on charges of contempt of court due to his failure to appear as a witness in the trial or to show cause why he could not comply with the subpoena requiring his appearance.

27 June 2006: Judges Ali Nawaz Chowhan (Pakistan) and Tsvetana Kamenova (Bulgaria) are sworn in as ad litem judges to sit on the Milutinovic et al. trial.

23 June 2006: In the Mrksic et al. (Vukovar Three) case, the prosecution rests its case.

21 June 2006: Dragan Nikolic, sentenced to 20-years imprisonment for his participation in crimes against Bosnian Muslim and other non-Serb civilians in the Susica Detention Camp in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, is transferred to Italy to serve his sentence.

20 June 2006: In the Martic case, the Prosecution rests its case.

15 June 2006: In the Blaskic case, the Prosecutor files a motion to withdraw the indictments against Stjepan Seselj, Marijan Krizic and Domagoj Margetic, Croatian journalists accused of making public the testimony and identify of a protected witness. The motion says that this decision was made under pressure to limit the scope of prosecutions and in order to avoid duplication with the separate case against Josip Jovic, who is charged with the same offence. The Prosecutor’s motion to join the two cases was recently denied.

13 June 2006: In the Prlic et al. case, Valentin Coric is granted temporary provisional release from June 14 – 19, 2006 to attend his father’s funeral.

13 June 2006: In the Zelenovic case, Dragon Zelenovic makes his initial appearance before the Court and exercises his right to delay entering a plea for 30 days. Zelenovic tells the Trial Chamber that he does not fully understand the content of the indictment and is not ready to enter his plea because he does not have a lawyer. Zelenovic was originally indicted along with Gojko Jankovic, whose case was transferred pursuant to rule 11bis from the tribunal to the War Crimes Chamber of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

10 June 2006: Dragon Zelenovic, accused of raping and torturing girls and women in Bosnian town of Foca in 1992, is taken into the custody of the Tribunal.

9 June 2006: In the Martic case, the Trial Chamber denies a defense motion requesting exclusion of the testimony of Milan Babic, who committed suicide before his cross-examination was completed. Instead, the defense will be given the opportunity to challenge “the exact portions of the evidence-in-chief of Milan Babic, upon which it intended to cross-examine him, but was unable to, as a result of his death.”

9 June 2006: The ICTY releases its report into the death of Milan Babic, who was found dead in the UN Detention Unit on March 5, 2006, after apparently committing suicide. The inquiry, headed by ICTY Vice-President Judge Kevin Parker, found no criminal conduct in Babic's death. The full report is available at http://www.un.org/icty/pressreal/2006/p1087-babicreport.htm.

9 June 2006: Dragan Zelenovic, a former sub-commander in the Bosnian Serb military police and paramilitary leader, is extradited from Russia to Bosnia-Herzegovina. He is expected to be transferred to the ICTY shortly. Zelenovic was was indicted by the ICTY on June 26, 1996, for crimes committed in Foca in 1992.

8 June 2006: Dario Kordic and Zoran Zigic are transferred to Austria to serve their 25-year sentences.

15 May 2006: The team of Swedish experts conducting an independent audit of the ICTY's Detention Unit following death of Slobodan Milosevic issues its report, available at http://www.un.org/icty/pressreal/2006/DU-audit.htm.

9 May 2006: In the Martic case, the trial is adjourned until further notice because the accused, Milan Martic, is ill.

8 May 2006: In the Rajic case, the Trial Chamber sentences former Bosnian Croat Army commander Ivica Rajic to 12 years imprisonment. In October 2005, Rajic pled guilty to the war crimes of willful killing 31 Bosnian Muslim civilians, appropriation of property, and extensive destruction related to an October 1993 attack against the village of Stupni Do, as well as ill treatment of more than 250 Muslim men in the nearby town of Vares.

6 May 2006: According to the ITAR-TASS news agency, Dragan Zelenovic, indicted by the ICTY for the rape and torture of Muslim women in Foca, Bosnia and Herzegovina, is freed on conditional release by a Russian court. In August 2005, unconfirmed news reports indicated that Russian authorities had taken Zelenovic into custody.

5 May 2006: In the Popovic et al. case, the Prosecutor files a Rule 11 bis application to refer the case against Milorad Trbic to the Bosnia and Herzegovina War Crimes Chamber. Trbic, a former security officer in the VRS Zvornik Brigade, is charged with genocide and other crimes in Srebrenica.

5 May 2006: In the Simic case, the Appeals Chamber grants Blagoje Simic’s motion for temporary provisional release from May 10-25, 2006, to attend memorial services for his mother in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In October 2003, Simic was sentenced to 17 years imprisonment for crimes against Bosnian Muslim and Bosnian Croat civilians in the Bosanski Samac municipality, where Simic served as the highest ranking civilian official. Both the prosecution and defence have appealed the Trial Chamber judgment.

3 May 2006: In the Naletilic and Martinovic case, the Appeals Chamber confirms the conviction and sentences of Bosnian Croat commanders Mladen Naletilic and Vinko Martinovic. In March 2003, the Trial Chamber sentenced Naletilic to 20 years and Martinovic to 18 years imprisonment for their involvement in the ethnic cleansing of Bosnian Muslim civilians in the Mostar area of Bosnia and Herzegovina between April 1993 and January 1994.

26 April 2006: In the Prlic et al. case, the trial of Jadranko Prlic, Bruno Stojic, Slobodan Praljak, Milivoj Petkovic, Valentin Coric and Berislav Pusic begins. The defendants are accused of participating in a joint criminal enterprise to ethnically cleanse Bosnian Muslims and other non-Croats from areas in the territory of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina that were claimed as part of “Herceg-Bosna” in 1991.

25 April 2006: Judge Antoine Kesia-Mbe Mindua of the Democratic Republic of the Congo is sworn in as a reserve ad litem judge in the Prlic et al. case.

21 April 2006: In the Limaj et al. case, the Appeals Chamber grants Haradin Bala's motion for temporary provisional release from April 23-27 to attend his daughter’s memorial service in Kosovo. The Trial Chamber sentenced Bala to 13 years imprisonment in November 2005.

12 April 2006: In the Pavkovic et al. and Milutinovic et al. cases, in response to reports that Dragoljub Ojdanic, Nikola Sainovic and Nebojsa Pavkovic attended the March 18 funeral of Slobodan Milosevic in the town of Pozarevac while on provisional release, the Trial Chamber asks Serbian authorities to respond in writing within 14 days "whether it is their practice to exempt some of the accused from explicit provisions in the terms of their provisional release and to explain the basis for such a practice." In this case, the terms of release explicitly prohibit the three from leaving the Belgrade city limits. On March 20, the Serbian Justice Ministry issued a press release stating that "all provisionally released persons are allowed in certain circumstances to leave the Belgrade city limits for a few hours," but did not provide a legal basis for this practice.

12 April 2006: The Trial Chamber decides that Vladimir Kovacevic “does not have the capacity to enter a plea and stand trial, without prejudice to any future criminal proceedings against him should his mental health condition change.” Kovacevic, the former Commander of the JNA's Third Battalion, is charged in connection with the the attack on Dubrovnik, Croatia in 1991. He was arrested in Serbia in 2003, but was unable to enter a plea due to his medical condition. In 2004 he was provisionally released for medical treatment in Serbia and Montenegro.

12 April 2006: In the Ljubicic case, the Tribunal’s Referral Bench decides to refer the case of Pasko Ljubicic to Bosnia and Herzegovina in accordance with Rule 11bis of the ICTY Rules of Procedure and Evidence.

10 April 2006: In the Oric case, the trial ends. Naser Oric, the former commander of the Bosnian Muslim forces in Srebrenica has been on trial since October 2004 for crimes allegedly committed against Bosnian Serbs by troops under his command between 1992 and 1993.

7 April 2006: Judges Stefan Trechsel (Switzerland) and Arpad Prandler (Hungary) are sworn in as ad litem judges of the Tribunal, bringing the total of ad litem judges serving at the Tribunal to nine. Judges Trechsel and Prandler will serve on the Prlić et al. case.

7 April 2006: In the Mejakic et al. case, the Appeals Chamber upholds the decision to refer to Bosnia and Herzegovina for trial the case against Zeljko Mejakic, Momcilo Gruban, Dusan Fustar and Dusko Knezevic, involving crimes against non-Serbs in the Omarska and Keraterm camps in Preijedor between May and August 1992.

4 April 2006: Dutch authorities submit the results of their independent inquest into the death of Slobodan Milosevic to the Tribunal. The report confirms that Milosevic died of natural causes and rules out any suggestion of criminal conduct.

4 April 2006: Pavle Strugar, convicted by the Trial Chamber in January 2005 for crimes committed in Dubrovnik and sentenced to eight years imprisonment, returns to the UN Detention Unit after a four-month provisional release in the Republic of Montenegro for medical treatment. Both Strugar and the Prosecutor have appealed the Trial Chamber judgment to the Appeals Chamber.

30 March 2006: The Swedish Government accepts the Tribunal’s request to conduct an independent audit of the Detention Unit’s management and administration.

22 March 2006: In the Stakic case, the Appeals Chamber affirms the convictions against Milomir Stakic, the former President of the Prijedor Municipal Assembly, and resolves that the Trial Chamber incorrectly found him not guilty of the crime against humanity of other inhumane acts (forcible transfer). Moreover, the Appeals Chamber determines that Stakic is responsible for these acts as a participant in a joint criminal enterprise, and not as a co-perpetrator. Due to errors in the sentencing determination, the Appeals Chambers reduces his sentence from life in prison to forty years.

16 March 2006: Trial Chamber I orders that relevant confidential materials in the Milosevic case be released to Dutch authorities in order to assist them in their independent investigation into Milosevic’s death. The Trial Chamber notes that while the privacy of an accused is generally respected by the Tribunal, once an accused is deceased, the needs of the investigation outweigh any residual privacy interests.

15 March 2006: In the Hadzihasanovic and Kubura case, Enver Hadzihasanovic and Amir Kubura, formerly high level commanders in the Bosnian army, are acquitted on most charges, but are found to have superior responsibility for crimes committed by forces who acted under their effective control, including some foreign Mujahedin fighters. Hadzihasanovic is convicted of failing to take “necessary and reasonable measures” to prevent or punish two acts of murder and several acts of cruel treatment as violations of the laws and customs of war and is sentenced to five years imprisonment. Kubura is convicted of failing to prevent or punish the plunder of several villages and is sentenced to two and a half years imprisonment.

14 March 2006: In the Milosevic case, the Trial Chamber announces that the proceedings against Slobodan Milosevic are terminated.

11 March 2006: In the Milosevic case, Milosevic is found dead in his cell in the ICTY Detention Unit in Scheveningen. A full inquiry is ordered by the Tribunal President, Judge Fausto Pocar.

10 March 2006: In the Blaskic case, Ivica Marijacic, a journalist, and Markica Rebic, formerly head of the Security Information Service of the Republic of Croatia, are found guilty of contempt and sentenced to 15,000 Euros each for deliberately disclosing information about the testimony of Dutch Army officer Johannes van Kuijk, a protected witness in this case.

10 March 2006: In the Haradinaj et al. case, the Appeals Chamber upholds the Trial Chamber's October 2005 decision regarding the conditions of Ramush Haradinaj’s conditional release and further refines those conditions. Its decision provides that any request to UNMIK for permission to make a public appearance also be sent to the Prosecution, that the Prosecution must be provided at least forty-eight hours to respond to such a request, that UNMIK may not make a decision on a request before considering the views of the Prosecution, and that UNMIK must provided a reasoned explanation of its decision granting or denying a request.

8 March 2006: In the Momir Nikolic case, the Appeals Chamber reduces the defendant’s sentence to 20 years from 27 after finding that the Trial Chamber made mistakes in its sentencing determination. In 2003, Nikolic pled guilty to one count of persecution as a crime against humanity and was sentenced to 27 years imprisonment for his role in organizing the murder and deportation of thousands of Muslim residents of Srebrenica.

5 March 2006: Milan Babic is found dead in his cell at the United Nations Detention Unit in Scheveningen after apparently commiting suicide. Babic, the former president and prime minister of the Serb Republic of Krajina, pled guilty on 22 January 2004 to one count of persecution as a crime against humanity, expressed remorse for his actions, and was sentenced to 13 years imprisonment. He was in the process of testifying in the case against his successor as Krajina president, Milan Martic, and was going to be called as a prosecution witness in numerous other cases. He also testified against Slobodan Milosevic in 2002. ICTY Judge Kevin Parker is appointed to lead an inquiry into his death.

28 February 2006: The Security Council unanimously passes Resolution 1660 (2006), which amends the ICTY statute to permit the Secretary-General to appoint reserve judges from the Tribunal’s pool of ad litem judges to specific trials at the request of the Tribunal President. These reserve judges will be present at each stage of an ongoing trial and can replace a judge on a bench if he or she is unable to continue serving in that capacity. The resolution is intended to avoid situations where a trial must be restarted when a judge is unable to continue.

24 February 2006: In the Visegrad case, Milan Lukic makes his initial appearance before the Tribunal and pleads not guilty. Lukic is charged with 12 counts of crimes against humanity (persecution, murder [5 counts], inhumane acts [4 counts], extermination [2 counts]) and nine counts of violations of the laws or customs of war (murder [5 counts], cruel treatment [4 counts])

24 February 2006: In the Milosevic case, the Trial Chamber rejects the defendant’s request for provisional release to receive medical treatment in Russia.

21 February 2006: Milan Lukic, who was indicted by the Tribunal on 26 October 1998 for his involvement in the “White Eagles,” a Bosnian Serb paramilitary group, is transferred from Argentina to face charges at the ICTY. Lukic, who had been on the run for nearly five years, was arrested in Buenos Aires on 8 August.

1 February 2006: Belgrade admits that Serb officers helped indictee Ratko Mladic hide until mid-2002 and then let him escape.

24 January 2006: In the Blaskic case, the Appeals Chamber grants the Prosecution’s motion to lift all protective measures regarding Stjepan Mesic with regard to the contempt proceedings against journalists Stjepan Seselj and Domagoj Margetic. Mesic, who testified before the Tribunal in 1997 and 1998, is the president of Croatia.

19 January 2006: In the Blaskic case, the contempt trial of Ivica Marijacic and Markica Rebic ends.

17 January 2006: In the Blaskic case, the contempt trial of Markica Rebic, Croatia’s former intelligence chief, and Ivica Marijacic, former editor of Hrvatski List, begins. Rebic is accused of revealing the name and confidential 1997 testimony of a protected witness to Marijacic, who then published the information.

16 January 2006: In the Martic case, the Prosecution begins its case against Milan Martic, the former interior minister and president of the Republic of Serbian Krajina.

11 January 2006: An Argentine federal judge orders that ICTY indictee Milan Lukic be extradited to the ICTY, “with the prohibition to retransfer such person to another place that is not authorized in this ruling.” He also grants Lukic’s extradition to Serbia, where has been sentenced to twenty years imprisonment in absentia, “after his legal proceedings at the ICTY have ended.” The ICTY prosecutor has requested that Lukic be tried before Bosnia and Herzegovina’s War Crimes Chamber.