International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia: Chronology

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17 December 2004: In the Kordic and Cerkez case, the Appeals Chamber affirms a sentence of 25 years imprisonment on Dario Kordic, and reduces Mario Cerkez' sentence trom 15 to six years after allowing most of his grounds of appeal.

7 December 2004: In the Dragomir Milosevic case, the accused makes his first appearance before before the Tribunal and pleads not guilty to all charges.

7 December 2004: In the Slobodan Milosevic case, Trial Chamber III denies the application by the defendant's court-assigned counsel and co-counsel to withdraw from the case, and instructs the Registrar to deny the application.

3 December 2004: Dragomir Milosevic surrenders to Serbian authorities and is transferred to the ICTY. The indictment charges him with four counts of crimes against humanity (murder, other inhumane acts) and three counts of violations of the laws or customs of war (unlawfully inflicting terror upon civilians, attacks on civilians) for attacks committed while he was commander of Bosnian Serb forces comprising or attached to the Sarajevo Romanija Corps deployed around the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo.

3 December 2004: In the Kordic and Cerkez case, Mario Cerkez is released from the Detention Unit after the Appeals Chamber concludes that his revised sentence will be lower than the time he has served.

3 December 2004: In the Stanisic and Simatovic case, the Appeals Chamber grants the defendants provisional release.

2 December 2004: In the Cermak and Markac case, the Appeals Chamber grants the defendants provisional release.

23 November 2004: ICTY President Theodor Meron, addressing the U.N. Security Council, affirms that the Tribunal is still on track for completing its work. He recommends extending the mandates of individual ad litem judges hearing cases that will not be completed by the end of their terms in June 2005, and asks the Council to consider amending the ICTY Statue to allow their re-election.

19 November 2004: The UN General Assembly elects 14 judges to the ICTY. The elected judges are: Carmel A. Agius (Malta), Jean-Claude Antonetti (France), Iain Bonomy (United Kingdom), O-gon Kwon (Republic of Korea), Liu Dagun (China), Theodor Meron (United States), Bakone Melema Moloto (South Africa), Alphonsus Martinus Maria Orie (Netherlands), Kevin Horace Parker (Australia), Fausto Pocar (Italy), Patrick Lipton Robinson (Jamaica), Wolfgang Schomburg (Germany), Mohamed Shahabuddeen (Guyana), and Christine Van den Wyngaert (Belgium). They will serve for four years beginning on 17 November 2005.

15 November 2004: In the Bralo case, Miroslav Bralo, a former member of the Croatian Defense Council (HVO) special forces, makes his initial appearance before the Tribunal. He is charged with nine counts of grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and twelve counts of violations of the laws or customs of war for acts that took place during the armed conflict between the HVO and the Government of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina armed forces from January through mid-July 1993.

15 November 2004: Serbia's Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunica says his government will not risk outraging powerful nationalist groups by arresting and handing over war criminals to the Tribunal.

15 November 2004: In the Limaj et al. case, the trial of Fatmir Limaj, Haradin Bala and Isak Musliu begins in Trial Chamber II. The accused are charged with crimes against humanity and violations of the laws or customs of war. According to the indictment they commanded the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) forces in the Lapusnik/Llapushnik Prison Camp during the 1998-99 conflict in Kosovo where they participated in maintaining and enforcing inhumane conditions and in aiding and abetting the torture, beatings and murders of detainees.

15 November 2004: In connection with the Limaj et al. case, Beqe Beqaj's contempt trial begins.

12 November 2004: In the Beara case, former Bosnian Serb army officer Ljubisa Beara makes his first appearance in front of the Tribunal and pleads innocent to genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in connection with the 1995 Srebrenica massacre. Beara is one of the highest-ranking Bosnian Serb officials to stand trial for this crime.

8 November 2004: Beqe Beqaj, a relative of Isak Musli (who will soon be tried by the Tribunal in the Limaj et al. case) makes his first appearance at the Tribunal. He pleads not guilty to knowingly and willingly threatening, intimidating and offering bribes to or otherwise interfering with witnesses or potential witnesses in the Limaj et al. case. Beqaj is the first person charged with contempt of court by the Tribunal.

3 November 2004: In the Ademi and Norac case, a special panel of judges assigned to rule on whether generals Rahim Ademi and Mirko Norac should be transferred to Croatian courts requests the parties provide additional information about the gravity of the crimes and the level of responsibility of the accused. This is the first of five cases that is under consideration for transfer to national courts in the region.

3 November 2004: In the Miroslav Tadic case, Judge Theodor Meron, the President of the Tribunal, grants Tadic early release. Tadic was found guilty on one count of crimes against humanity (persecution), and was sentenced to eight years imprisonment on 17 October 2003. Judge Meron based his decision on the facts that Tadic served two thirds of his sentence, the genuine remorse Tadic expressed during his trial, his cooperation with the Tribunal, his "exemplary" behavior in the detention center, and the likelihood that he will be welcomed back into the community.

1 November 2004: In the Milosevic case, the Appeals Chamber rules that Slobodan Milosevic will be allowed to preside over his own defense so long as his physical health allows. The Chamber affirms the imposition of defense counsel and rules that the agreement disproportionately restricted the Milosevic's participation in his own defense. Milosevic will now have the lead in presenting his case while the assigned counsel will have a standby role of defending Milosevic if he cannot proceed due to ill health.

30 October 2004: A four-hour operation by Bosnian Serb police to apprehend and detain Gojka Jankovic, a former Bosnian Serb sub-commander of the military police in Foca, ends in failure. Jankovic has been indicted for rape and torture of Muslim women.

27 October 2004: In the Milosevic case, Steven Kay and Gillian Higgins request withdrawal from their role as assigned counsel for the defense, citing their inability to defend Milosevic since he is unwilling to participate in his defense.

22 October 2004: Former Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic's trial is adjourned until 9 November because no witnesses are available to appear next week and a break is scheduled for the following week.

21 October 2004: The ICTY Appeals Chamber grants Blagoje Simic's motion to be provisionally released from 4 to 7 November 2004 to attend services marking the 40-day commemoration of his father's death. Simic is serving a 17-year sentence for crimes against humanity.

21 October 2004: The Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) Parliamentary House of Peoples adopts a set of laws designed to facilitate the transfer of ICTY war crimes trials to domestic courts.

19 October 2004: Serbia refuses to arrest four generals indicted on four counts of crimes against humanity (deportation, murder, persecution, other inhumane acts [forcible transfer]), and one count of the violation of the laws and customs of war (murder) connected to the expulsion of Kosovo Albanians in 1999. Army chief of staff Nebojsa Pavkovic; his deputy, Vladimir Lazarevic; and police generals Vlastimir Djordjevic and Sreten Lukic are charged both as participants in a joint criminal enterprise and with superior responsibilty for the crimes of their subordinates. Djordjevic is believed to be hiding in Russia, while the others have been seen living openly in Serbia.

19 October 2004: In the Milosevic case, the trial adjourns for a week after half of the 138 defense witnesses called to testify about alleged atrocities in Kosovo refuse to appear in protest against the Tribunal's decision to impose counsel on Milosevic. Presiding Judge Robinson says that the Tribunal will use its subpoena power to force their testimony if necessary.

12 October 2004: In the Beara case, Ljubisa Beara makes his initial appearance but does not enter a plea after his transfer by Serbian authorities to the Tribunal. Beara is one of the most senior Bosnian Serb army officers yet to appear. He is charged as a participant in a joint criminal enterprise with one count of genocide, four counts of crimes against humanity (extermination, murder, persecution, and other inhumane acts [forcible transfer]) and one count of violations of the laws or customs of war (murder) arising from the attack on the town of Srebrenica in 1995. His indictment was confirmed in 2002 and he was apprehended on 9 October 2004.

12 October 2004: In the Milosevic case, the trial resumes.

12 October 2004: The Tribunal makes public the indictment, warrant for arrest, and order for surrender for Miroslav Bralo, a former member of the Bosnian Croat (HVO) forces. Bralo was secretly indicted in November 1995 on nine counts of grave breaches of the Geneva conventions and twelve counts of violations of the laws or customs of war. He is charged with direct participation in the unlawful confinement, inhumane and cruel treatment, torture, rape, and murder of Bosnian Muslim civilians in the villages in the Lasva River Valley region in central Bosnia and Herzegovina.

9 October 2004: In Foca, Bosnia and Herzegovina, a conference is held in which senior ICTY personnel provide a detailed and comprehensive picture of the Tribunal's activities in relation to allegations of serious violations of international humanitarian law in Foca during the 1992-1995 armed conflict. Foca was the site of some of the most infamous gender-related crimes of the war.

6 October 2004: In the Oric case, the trial of former Bosnian Muslim militia leader Naser Oric begins. Oric is charged with two counts of violations of the laws and customs of war on the basis of individual criminal responsibility (plunder, wanton destruction) and four counts on the basis of superior criminal responsibility (murder, cruel treatment, plunder, wanton destruction) pursuant to his command of units in Srebrenica between 24 September 1992 and 20 March 1993.

1 October 2004: Following a meeting between the chief prosecutor of the ICTY Carla Del Ponte and Serbia's special court for war crimes and organized crime, Del Ponte announces the transfer of investigative responsibility in an ICTY case to Serbian prosecutors for the first time. No details are provided regarding which case will be transferred. So far, no other former Yugoslav republic has been given responsibility for an ongoing UN investigation of a war crimes suspect indicted by the ICTY.

1 October 2004: The ICTY Rules of the Road program, in which the ICTY Office of the Prosecutor initially reviews all war crimes' prosecutions that are to be conducted at the domestic level in Bosnia and Herzegovina, is transferred to the competency of the Bosnia and Herzegovina State Court. Since its establishment in 1996, the program has received criminal files against a total of 5,908 persons suspected of war crimes.

30 September 2004: The Serbian government decides to provide guarantees to the ICTY for the release of Blagoje Simic on bail. Simic voluntarily surrendered to the ICTY on March 12, 2001.

29 September -1 October 2004: In the Blagojevic and Jokic cases, the Trial Chamber hears closing arguments.

22 September 2004: In the Mejakic case, President Meron presents the prosecution with issues for clarification regarding the capacity of Bosnia and Herzegovina to provide trials that meet the standards of international due process. Specifically, he asks for evidence that Bosnia and Herzegovina would provide all necessary legal and technical conditions for fair trials, and of the extent to which the country is capable of referring defendant's case to a competent court.

13 September 2004: A conference begins between the ICTY Victim and Witnesses Section and health/welfare professionals from Kosovo and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) to discuss the physical, emotional and psychological needs of witnesses. The purpose of the conference is to find ways in which the establishment of health care networks throughout Kosovo and FYROM can assist in providing preparation and follow-up services to witnesses who testify at the Tribunal. Since 1 January 1998, more than 3,268 witnesses have testified before a Trial Chamber of the ICTY.

13 September 2004: ICTY dismisses a comment made by Dragan Covic, the Croat member of the Bosnian State Presidency, that the ICTY trial of six Bosnian Croats will probably transfer to Croatian courts.

15 September 2004: In Milosevic case, the Trial Chamber denies the defense requests for a further medical examination of the accused and to have the accused examine the witnesses before the Court assigns defense counsel. The defense counsels' request to be relieved from their positions is also denied. The ICTY judges suspend the Milosevic trial until October 12, 2004, in response to the defense request for more time to prepare the case due to difficulties caused by Milosevic's refuseal to cooperate. Many defense witnesses have cancelled their appearance in show of support to his claim to the right of self-representation.

14-15 September: Trial Chamber I Section A (Judges Liu, presiding, Vassylenko and Argibay), sitting on Blagojevic and Jokic trial, conduct an on-site visit to the municipalities of Srebrenica, Bratunac and Zvornik in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The visit is in response to a joint motion by the prosecution and defense on 2 June 2004, requesting the visit to assist the Trial Chamber in assessing the evidence and to obtain first-hand knowledge of the sites mentioned in the indictment and during the trial.

21 September 2004: Judges Hans Henrik Brydensholt of Denmark and Albin Eser of Germany are sworn in as ad litem judges, following their appointment by the Secretary General of the UN.

9 September 2004: The Appeals Chamber allows the provisional release of prisoners Jadranko Prlic, Bruno Stojic, Slobodan Praljak, Milivoj Petkovic, Valetin Coric and Berislav Pusic.

3 September 2004: ICTY Deputy Registrar assigns Steven Kay as lead counsel and Gillian Higgins as co-counsel for Slobodan Milosevic. Milosevic may still participate in the conduct of his case, including examining witnesses.

2 September 2004: Trial Chamber III issues an oral Order to the Registrar of the ICTY to assign counsel to Slobodan Milosevic.

1 September 2004: In the Brdjanin, the accused is convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity (persecution; extermination; torture; deportation; inhumane acts (forcible transfer)), but cleared of the charge of genocide. Brdjanin, a prominent member of Radovan Karadzic's Serb Democrat Party, used propaganda campaigns against Bosnian Muslims and Bosnian Croats to further his goal of removing these groups from Bosnia, judges said. The acquittal on genocide charges means that the tribunal has yet to sustain a genocide charge against any of its indictees.

31 August 2004: The Milosevic trial resumes after numerous delays caused by the poor health of the defendant. Mr. Milosevic says he wants to call more than 1600 witnesses in the 150 days allotted to his defence, including Bill Clinton and Tony Blair.

30 August 2004: David Tolbert (United States) takes up duties as Deputy Prosecutor of the ICTY following his appointment by UN Secretary-General Mr. Kofi Annan.

30 July 2004: Trial Chamber 1 joins the cases of Mirko Norac and Rahim Ademi.

29 July 2004: The Appeals Chamber reverses the majority of charges on which Tihomir Blaskic was originally convicted and sentences him to nine years imprisonment, rather than 45 years. Recently released material from Croatian government archives largely exonerated him. Blaskic, who has been imprisoned since 1996, is granted early release.

23 July 2004: In the Hadzihasanovic and Kubura case, the Prosecution presents its closing arguments and rests its case.

23 July 2004: In the Blagojevic and Jokic case, the Defense for Dragan Jokic rests. The trial is adjourned until September 2004.

20 July 2004: In the Hadzic case, Chief Prosecutor Carla del Ponte blasts the Government of Serbia and Montenegro for its failure to arrest Goran Hadzic. According to del Ponte, the Government of Serbia and Montenegro had received a sealed arrest warrant for Hadzic three days prior to its being made public this week. Hadzic had been living openly in Serbia. Within hours of the arrest warrant arriving in Belgrade, the Prosecutor says Hadzic went into hiding, apparently tipped off that his arrest was imminent. Del Ponte says this is the second time this year that an indictee, who's whereabouts were known by Serbian officials, went into hiding hours after a sealed arrest warrant was received by the Serbian government, but before official could make an arrest. She says that if the Government of Serbia and Montenegro doesn't arrest Hadzic soon and transfer him to the Hague, she will be forced to report to the UN Security Council that Serbia and Montenegro is not fulfilling its obligation to cooperate.

16 July 2004: The Tribunal announces the indictment of Goran Hadzic. The former president of the self-declared Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK) is charged with eight counts of crimes against humanity (persecution, murder, extermination, imprisonment, torture, deportation, inhumane acts, and forcible transfer as an inhumane act) and six counts of war crimes (murder, torture, cruel treatment, wanton destruction, plunder, and destruction or damage to institutions dedicated to education or religion).

16 July 2004: In the Milosevic case, the Trial Chamber adjourns proceedings until 31 August 2004 after receiving reports from Slobodan Milosevic's doctor saying that his blood pressure was too high for him to attend the proceedings schedule to begin 19 July.

12 July 2004: In the Milosevic case, hearings are further adjourned until 19 July to allow time for a second cardiologist to report on Slobodan Milosevic's fitness to continue with the trial.

8 July 2004: In the Norac case, retired Croatian General Mirko Norac pleads not guilty to two counts of crimes against humanity (murder, persecution) and two counts of war crimes (murder, plunder). Norac is currently serving a 12-year prison sentence in Croatia on other war-related charges and was transferred to the Tribunal earlier in the day to attend the hearing. Following the hearing, the Judge orders that Norac will be remanded into the custody of the Croatian Government, under the Tribunal's authority, during the pre-trial phase of his case.

6 July 2004: In the Vasiljevic case, Mitar Vasiljevic is transferred to Austria to serve his sentence. Vasiljevic was convicted in November 2002 of crimes against humanity (murder and inhumane acts) and violations of the laws and customs of war (murder) and sentenced to 20 years in prison. That sentence was reduced to 15 years on appeal in February 2004.

6 July 2004: In the Milosevic case, the judges order Slobodan Milosevic to undergo new medical test by an independent cardiologist. The judges say they can see no evidence that Milosevic is unfit to stand trial, but that there is evidence his health may make him unfit to continue to represent himself. The case is adjourned until 14 July.

5 July 2004: In the Milosevic case, the scheduled start of the Defense case is postponed due to Slobodan Milosevic's ill health.

1 July 2004: Sir Richard May, a former judge on the Milosevic case, dies at the age of 65. May had retired from the ICTY on 30 May of this year citing poor health.

1 July 2004: In the Blagojevic and Jokic case, the Defense for Dragan Jokic makes its opening statements.

30 June 2004: In the Seselj case, communications restriction against Vojislav Seselj are lifted. The original communication restrictions were put in place in December 2003 and had been continually renewed until this time. Seselj is warned that direct or indirect communication with the media is still prohibited and that any contact with the media will result in a reinstating of the communication restrictions.

30 June 2004: The internationally recognized High Representative in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Paddy Ashdown, sacks 60 Bosnian Serb officials for their part in failing to arrest ICTY-fugitive Radovan Karadizc. Among those dismissed are BiH's Parliamentary Speaker and the country's Interior and Police Ministers. The Dayton Peace Accords, which ended the war in Bosnia, give the High Representative far-reaching powers.

30 June 2004: Chief Prosecutor Carla del Ponte tells the UN Security Council that the ICTY is currently considering 12 cases, concerning 22 defendants, to determine whether they could be transferred to domestic jurisdictions in other states. She warned, however, that even if all 12 were transferred, the court still might not be able to meet its 2008 deadline for completion of all trials.

29 June 2004: In the Babic case, Milan Babic is sentenced to 13 years in prison. Babic plead guilty to one count of crimes against humanity (persecution) in January 2004. The Trial Chamber cites Babic's voluntary surrender to the Tribunal, his guilty plea, his remorse, and his extensive cooperation with the Prosecution in other cases as mitigating circumstances in the sentencing judgment. The Prosecution had asked for a sentence of no more than 11 years, but the Trial Chamber says that request was not a sufficient punishment to achieve justice.

25 June 2004: In the Krajisnik case, the trial is adjourned until September 2004.

18 June 2004: In the Obrenovic case, Dragan Obrenovic is transferred to Norway to serve the remainder of his 17-year sentence. Obrenovic was sentenced in December 2003 after pleading guilty to one count of crimes against humanity (persecution).

17 June 2004: The Tribunal now has the option to defer cases to any UN member state deemed to have jurisdiction, willingness and appropriate conditions to hold the trial. The amendment to rule 11 bis of the ICTY's Rules and Procedures, which goes into effect today, could apply to both ongoing cases and trials that have not yet stared. Under the new rule, any case under consideration for deferment to another state must first be approved by a specially appointed Trial Chamber at the ICTY. The Trial Chamber must be satisfied that the accused can receive a fair trial and that there is absolutely no chance that the death penalty might be imposed. This disqualifies any country that allows capital punishment from receiving a deferred case.

17 June 2004: In the Milosevic case, Slobodan Milosevic asks the Tribunal to order former US President Bill Clinton, German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder, and British Prime Minister Tony Blair to appear as witnesses in his case. The judge told Milosevic that all such requests need to be submitted to the court in writing if they are to be considered. Milosevic, who refuses to acknowledge the legitimacy of the Tribunal, says he has no intention of submitting anything in writing.

16 June 2004: In the Pavkovic et al. case, former Serbian General Vlastimir Djordjevic surfaces after three years in hiding, saying that he is willing to stand trial in Serbia, but not at the ICTY. Djordjevic, who fled Serbia in 2001 fearing that he might be indicted by the ICTY made this statement in a letter to a Russian newspaper. His stance is similar to those of his co-Accused in the Pavkovic et al. case who are all living openly in Serbia and insist they did nothing wrong.

16 June 2004: In the Milsosevic case, the Tribunal rejects a defense motion to have genocide charges against Slobodan Milosevic dropped. The judges ruled that there was sufficient evidence in the case for Milosevic to answer, despite arguments from Milosevic's standby council that the prosecution had failed to prove a case of genocide.

10 June 2004: In the Seselj case, the communications restrictions placed on Vojislav Seselj are extended until 1 July, 2004. The Registrar deemed it necessary to continue the restrictions in light of the scheduled Serbian elections on 13 June with possible follow-up elections later in the month. The Registrar noted Seselj's continued attempts to affect Serbian politics through contact with the media and others outside of the detention unit in imposing the extension.

10 June 2004: In the Milosevic case, Judge Iain Bonomy is officially appointed to the bench seat vacated by Judge Richard May. Judge Bonomy certifies that he has familiarized himself with the record of the case's proceedings.

7 June 2004: Lord Iain Bonomy is sworn in as a judge of the ICTY. Judge Bonomy (UK) replaces Judge Richard May (UK) who stepped down May 31 for health reasons.

7 June 2004: A three-day conference with officials from The ICTY Victims and Witnesses Section (VWS) and mental health professionals from Croatia begins. The conference is aimed at establishing preparatory and follow-up assistance to witnesses from Croatia who will come to the Tribunal to give testimony. These services are designed to supplement the mental health services the witnesses receive while in the Hague.

2 June 2004: In the Kovacevic case, the Tribunal orders the provisional release of Vladamir Kovacevic on medical grounds. The Tribunal ruled that he "suffers from a serious mental disorder which presently renders him unfit to enter a plea or to stand trial." Kovacevic will return to Serbia and Montenegro for an initial period of six months where it is hoped that treatment in a Serbian-speaking environment may improve his condition.

28 May 2004: Dusko Jovanovic, the newspaper editor who's contempt charges at the ICTY were withdrawn in April, is shot dead in Montenegro. Jovanovic had been charged with contempt for disclosing the name of a protected witness in the Milosevic case. There was no immediate word of a motive, though his newspaper is controversial for its close ties with the party of former President Slobodan Milosevic and is currently involved in several libel suits.

26 May 2004: In the Strugar case, the Tribunal denies a Defense motion to terminate proceedings against Pavle Strugar due to his not being fit to stand trial. The Defense had argued that the Defendant's mental and physical state made it impossible for him to assist adequately in his own defense.

20 May 2004: Former Croatian General Mirko Norac is indicted by the Tribunal. His indictment, confirmed today, charges two counts of crimes against humanity (persecution, murder) and three counts of war crimes (murder; plunder; wanton destruction of cities, towns or villages) for crimes committed in the Medak Pocket in 1993. Norac is currently serving a 12-year sentence in a Croatian jail for charges surrounding the killing more than 50 Croatian Serb civilians in 1991.

18 May 2004: In the Strugar case, the Prosecution rests its case. The Defense is scheduled to begin its case on 28 June 2004

24 May 2004: A three-day conference between officials of ICTY's Victim and Witness Unit and health/welfare professionals from Serbia-Montenegro begins. The conference is aimed at strengthening service for witnesses from Serbia-Montenegro who come to the Tribunal to testify. The major topic of discussion is how to set up preparatory and follow-up services in Serbia-Montenegro to supplement those services witnesses currently receive while they are in the Hague.

21 May 2004: Representatives from the ICTY participate in a two-day training program for judges and prosecutors involved in war crimes trials in Croatia's newly established war crimes court. Among the topics included in the training are definitions of crimes under international and local laws, forms of criminal responsibility and association, investigation procedures, drafting of indictments, witness protection issues, and cooperation between the ICTY and the Croatian courts over issues of evidence.

14 May 2004: A delegation of judges and prosecutors from Serbia-Montenegro's Special Court for War Crimes (SCWC) wraps up a three-day visit to the ICTY. The SCWC is preparing to conduct its own war crimes trials in Belgrade. This visit gave the judges and prosecutors a chance to talk with their counterparts at the ICTY and discuss many relevant topics including cooperation between the two courts, the drafting of indictments, methods of evidence, and the concepts of command responsibility and joint criminal enterprise.

12 May 2004: In the Milutinvoic et al. case, Defense attorneys for Dragoljub Ojdanic say they do not have enough money to adequately prepare his defense. The Defense claims that it has been working pro bono since April 2003, when the Tribunal's approved funding for Ojdanic's defense ran out. The Registry and the Appeals Chamber have already rejected a request for additional funding.

11 May 2004: The European Union says Serbia-Montenegro's failure to cooperate fully with the ICTY is jeopardizing its chances at becoming a member of the EU. The EU's Commissioner for External Relations says Serbia-Montenegro must choose between protecting those accused of war crimes and joining the EU.

8 May 2004: The ICTY's Outreach Program conducts the first of several planned conferences in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The one-day conference in Brcko brought together local Bosnian villagers and officials who are affected by ongoing trials at the ICTR. Tribunal officials explained the investigation process, the Prosecutor's strategy, and what evidence has been presented in cases relevant to the area.

7 May 2004: In the Seselj case, the Registry extends the existing communications restrictions on Vojislav Seselj until 13 June 2004. Seselj has been limited to communication with his attorneys and diplomatic representatives and to monitored communication with his family.

5 May 2004: In the Milosevic case, the Tribunal releases portions of a Prosecution motion responding to an amici curiae filed in March seeking to have the genocide charges against Slobodan Milosevic dropped due to lack of evidence. The Prosecution's motion, which was also submitted in March, claims that while the Prosecution may have cut its case short in the interests of time, it did present enough evidence to prove genocidal intent. The Tribunal has yet to rule on the issue.

5 May 2004: In the Milosevic case, the Tribunal announces that the start of the Defense case will be pushed back two weeks due to Slobodan Milosevic's ill-health and to allow more time for the translation of documents. Milosevic, who is defending himself, was originally scheduled to begin putting on his defense on 8 June, however the trial is now set to resume on 22 June 2004.

4 May 2004: ICTY officials tell the UN Security Council that Serbia-Montenegro's cooperation with the Tribunal is "nearly non-existent." Tribunal President Theodor Meron says that some of the major areas of concern are the failure to arrest fugitives, lack of access to witnesses and documentation, and the failure to grant witnesses waivers of immunity for their testimony at the ICTY.

22 April 2004: In the Bradjanin case, closing arguments come to an end. No date has yet been set for a judgment.

19 April 2004: In the Krstic case, the Appeals Chamber reversed the Trial Chamber's judgment convicting Radislav Krstic of genocide, instead finding him guilty of aiding and abetting genocide. The Appeals Chamber finds that the Prosecution did not adequately prove Kristic's intent to destroy the population at issue in whole or in part. Krstic had been the first person convicted of genocide at the ICTY. The Appeals Chamber reduces his sentence to from 46 to 35 years imprisonment. While reducing Krstic's level of responsibility in the case, the judges unequivocally maintained that genocide had occurred in Srebrenica in 1995, despite claims that the number of those killed was too low. The judges maintained that the mass killing of Muslim men and boys put the community's very survival at stake.

19 April 2004: In the Jovanovic case, the Tribunal withdraws the indictment against Dusko Jovanovic. Jovanovic, the editor of the DAN newspaper, was indicted last year for contempt of court after publishing the name of a protected witness in the Milosevic case.

15 April 2004: Serbia's highest court temporarily blocks legislation, passed last month, that would have used taxpayers' money to pay for Serbian ICTY indictees' defense, supported their families and compensated them for lost wages.

14 April 2004: In the Blagojevic and Jokic case, the defense counsel for Vidoje Blagojevic gives his opening statement.

13 April 2004: In the Milosevic case, Slobodon Milosevic submits the list of witnesses he wishes to call in his defense. The list has 1,631 names on it, which is twice the number of witnesses the Prosecution called during the presentation of its case. Among the witnesses reportedly on the list are former US President Clinton and current British Prime Minister Tony Blair and French President Jacques Chirac. The judges in the case will have the final say as to which witnesses will be allowed to testify.

12 April 2004: In the Milosevic case, Lord Iain Bonomy (UK) is appointed to the ICTY to replace Judge Richard May (UK), who will retire at the end of May for health reasons. Lord Bonomy, a former criminal prosecutor and judge from Scotland, will officially take up his duties on 1 June.

6 April 2004: ICTY permanent judges amend Rule 28 (A) of the Tribunal's Rules of Procedure and Evidence to include a procedure to determine whether new indictments focus on the most senior leaders who bear the greatest responsibility for crimes within the Tribunal's jurisdiction. The amendment follows the UN Security Council adoption of resolution 1534 on 26 March 2004, calling for the Tribunal to concentrate its new indictments on such leaders.

6 April 2004: In the Prlic et al. case, Jadranko Prlic, Bruno Stojic, Slobodan Praljak, Milivoj Petkovic, Valentin Coric, and Berislav Pusic make their initial appearance before the Tribunal. The indictments for Prlic, Stojic, Praljak, and Petkovic were made public on 2 April, and the indictments for Coric and Pusic were made public on 5 April. All pleaded not guilty to all 26 counts in the Indictment.

5 April 2004: In the Pralic et al. case, the indictments against two other high ranking Bosnian Croats, Valentin Coric and Berislav Pusic, are unsealed. They are charged with the same 26 counts alleged against Jadranko Prlic, Bruno Stojic, Slobodan Praljak and Milivoj Petkovic. Coric and Pusic had been included in the Prlic et al. indictment, but until today, their names had been redacted.

5 April 2004: In the Blagojevic and Jokic case, the Trial Chamber acquits Vidoje Blagojevic of individual criminal responsibility on five counts: crimes against humanity (extermination, murder, persecutions, and inhumane acts) and violations of the laws of war (murder). Dragan Jokic is acquitted of individual criminal responsibility for crimes against humanity (extermination, murder, and persecutions) and violations of the laws of war (murder). These acquittals are in response to a defense motion that the Prosecution failed to present sufficient evidence to justify the charges. The trial continues on the remaining counts of the indictment.

2 April 2004: The indictments against four high-ranking former Bosnian Croat political and military leaders, Jadranko Prlic, Bruno Stojic, Slobodan Praljak and Milivoj Petkovic, are unsealed. They are charged with 26 counts each: 8 counts of crimes against humanity (persecution, murder, rape, deportation, imprisonment, and 3 counts of inhumane acts), 9 counts of grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions (willful killing, unlawful deportation, unlawful transfer, unlawful confinement, unlawful and wanton destruction of property, unlawful appropriation of property, and 3 counts of inhuman treatment), and 9 counts of war crimes (unlawful labour; wanton destruction of cities, towns or villages; destruction or willful damage to religious or educational institutions; plunder; unlawful attack on civilians; terror on civilians; and 3 counts of cruel treatment).

31 March 2004: In the Mrdja case, Darko Mrdja is sentenced to 17 years imprisonment. Mrdja pleaded guilty in July 2003 to one count of war crimes (murder) and one count of crimes against humanity (inhumane acts). In deciding his sentence, the Tribunal cited as aggravating factors the special vulnerability of the victims at the time of the commission of the crime and the particularly high level of suffering inflicted upon them. Mrdja's substantial cooperation with the Prosecution, his guilty plea, and his remorse were cited as mitigating factors.

30 March 2004: In the Deronjic case, Miroslav Deronjic was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment. Deronjic plead guilty in September 2003 to a crime against humanity (persecutions). The Presiding judge in the case, Judge Schomburg, issued a dissent on the sentencing judgment, saying that Deronjic deserved no less than 20 years in prison.

30 March 2004: The Serbian legislature passes the Act on the Rights of Hague Tribunal Indictees. The act provides for funds to pay salaries and allowances to the families of Serbian indictees at the ICTY and to cover legal fees and travel expenses for family visits.

29 March 2004: In the Milosevic case, the Tribunal has decided to continue the case with a new judge after the resignation of Judge Richard May, despite a lack of consent from the Accused. There was earlier speculation that the trial might have to start from scratch.

26 March 2004: The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 1534, which calls for the ICTY to concentrate its new indictments solely on the most senior leaders who bear the greatest responsibility for atrocities in the former Yugoslavia.

25 March 2004: In the Milosevic case, the Tribunal ruled that Slobodan Milosevic's refusal to comment on the plan to replace one of the judges hearing the case amounts to his refusing to grant consent. Faced with this lack of consent, the Trial Chamber will now have to decide whether the interests of justice would allow the ICTY to continue the trial with a substitute judge or to declare a mistrial and order a retrial. The case has already been going on for over two years. Judge Richard May will be resigning at the end of May due to health reasons.

19 March: In the Maglov case, the Trial Chamber grants a defense motion to drop one count against Milka Maglov. The Chamber said the Prosecution had no case with regard to the allegation that Maglov disclosed the whereabouts of a witness to the public in violation of an order of another Trial Chamber. Maglov, a former defense attorney in the Brdjanin case, is still charged with intimidating a witness, attempting to intimidate a witness and disclosing the identity of a witness to the public.

19 March 2004: In the Brdjanin case, the Appeals Chamber re-instates one count of genocide against Radoslav Brdjanin, which had initially been dropped by the Trial Chamber. In November 2003, the Trial Chamber agreed with a Defense motion that the Prosecution did not have sufficient evidence to justify a charge of genocide.

18 March 2004: In the Jokic case, Miodrag Jokic was sentenced to seven years imprisonment. In August 2003, Jokic plead guilty to six counts of violations of the laws or customs of war (murder, cruel treatment, attacks on civilians, unjustified devastation, unlawful attacks, and destruction of institutions dedicated to religion, charity, and education).

17 March 2004: The ICTY pays formal tribute to Judge Richard May to thank him for his seven years of service to the Tribunal, wishing him well in his retirement and a speedy recovery. Last month, Judge May announced his retirement, due to ill health, effective May 31.

16 March 2004: In the Brdjanin case, three judges visit the sites of detention camps in Bosnia to gather information relevant to the trial.

12 March 2004: In the Hadzihasanovic and >Kubara case, Amir Kubura is granted provisional release beginning 13 March to attend his mother's funeral. He is ordered to be back in The Hague by 15 March.

12 March 2004: In the Cermak and Markac case, the defendants Ivan Cermak and Mladan Markac plead not guilty to four counts of crimes against humanity (persecution, deportation, and two counts of other inhumane acts) and three counts of war crimes (murder, plunder of property, and wanton destruction).

11 March 2004: In the Cesic case, Ranko Cesic is sentenced to 18 years imprisonment. Cesic was indicted for and plead guilty to two twelve charges: six counts of crimes against humanity (5 of murder and 1 of rape) and six counts of war crimes (5 of murder and 1 of humiliating and degrading treatment). Cesic's guilty plea, along with his willingness to help the Prosecution and to testify in other trials, were noted as mitigating factors in the sentencing decision.

11 March 2004: The United Kingdom signs an agreement on the enforcement of sentences handed down by the ICTY. The UK is the 10th state to sign an enforcement agreement and the first common law state to do so.

11 March 2004: In the Milosevic case, the Tribunal decides not to extend the communications restrictions placed on Slobodan Milosevic, which have been in place since 11 December 2003. Milosevic is warned, however, that direct or indirect communication with the media is prohibited and any violation of that rule will result in the restrictions being reinstated.

11 March 2004: In the Kvocka, et al. case, Miroslav Kvocka's provisional release is revoked beginning 19 March in preparation for his appeal hearing. He is ordered to turn himself in to ICTY detention by that date.

9 March 2004: In the Jokic case, Miodrag Jokic is ordered to return to The Hague by 16 March, ending his provisional release. Jokic's sentenced is to be announced 18 March.

8 March 2004: Croatian Generals Ivan Cermak and Mladan Markac are indicted by the ICTY. They are both charged with four counts of crimes against humanity (persecution, deportation, and two counts of other inhumane acts) and three counts of violations of the laws or customs of war (plunder, wanton destruction, and murder).

6 March 2004: In the Milosevic case, the Prosecution releases over 400,000 pages of documents to Slobodan Milosevic that may contain potentially exculpatory evidence for use in his defense. The search for these documents has cost over $1.5 million and has been complicated by the fact that the accused has refused to formally state his defense, leaving the Prosecution with the job of having to guess the various defenses he could use and looking for documents that might be exculpatory for those defenses.

5 March 2004: In the Milosevic case, two court-appointed legal advisors to Slobodan Milosevic file an application with the Tribunal asking them to drop the genocide charges against him because the Prosecution failed to provide enough evidence to justify such a charge.

3 March 2004: In the Galic case, the Prosecution says it will appeal Stanislav Galic's December 2003 sentence. It seeks life in prison rather than the Trial Chamber's sentence of 20 years.

26 February 2004: In the Milosevic case, the Trial Chamber elects Judge Patrick Robinson as presiding judge for Trial Chamber III. Judge Robinson, who has been on the Milosevic case since its start two years ago, will fill the presiding chair being vacated by Judge Richard May. A new trial judge to replace Judge May on the case has yet to be appointed.

25 February 2004: In the Milosevic case, the Defense will begin presenting its case on 8 June 2004. The Trial Chamber is changing the date due to the Prosecution's decision to wrap up its case earlier than expected. Slobodan Milosevic, who is acting as his own lawyer, will have 150 days to complete his case.

25 February 2004: In the Milosevic case, the Trial Chamber accepts the Prosecution's motion to end their case immediately despite having four more witnesses to call and more evidence to admit. The Court will allow the Prosecution to admit some, but not all of the evidence in question, allowing the Defense to submit a written response to the disputed evidence. The decision was made after Judge Richard May announced his resignation from the Tribunal due to ill health and because hearings had been cancelled for the past two weeks due to Slobodan Milosevic's ill health.

25 February 2004: In the Vasiljevic case, the Appeals Chamber reduces Mitar Vasiljevic's sentence from 20 to 15 years in prison. Vasiljevic was convicted of crimes against humanity (murder and inhumane acts) and violations of the laws and customs of war (murder). The reduction is a result of the Appeals Chamber finding that Vasiljevic aided and abetted these crimes instead of acting as a co-perpetrator as the Trial Chamber had found.

24 February 2004: In the Milosevic case, the hearings scheduled for today and tomorrow are cancelled due to the ill health of the Accused.

23 February 2004: Proceedings are cancelled in the Milosevic case due to the ill-health of the accused. The Prosecution will resume its case on 24 and 25 February.

22 February 2004: Judge Richard May announces his resignation from the Tribunal due to ill health, effective 31 May 2004. Appointed in November 1997, Judge May is the presiding judge of the Milosevic case. It is unclear whether this will give Slobodan Milosevic grounds for a retrial.

21 February 2004: Serbian Prime Minister-designate Vojislav Kostunica says that extradition of people accused of war crimes by ICTY would not be a priority for his government and, specifically, that his government will not extradite four senior police and army officers indicted by the Tribunal last September.

19 February 2004: The Kosovo Assembly approves a law on cooperation with the ICTY. The law establishes an official link between the Hague-based Tribunal and Kosovo, paving the way for indicted Kosovars to receive institutionalized support and assistance at the Tribunal. The UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) claims the Assembly overstepped its bounds in approving the law because only the UN Civilian Administrator has the authority to adopt such laws.

19 February 2004: In the Deronjic case, the Trial Chamber orders that a new sentencing hearing be held for Miroslav Deronjic. This order comes after the Trial Chamber found inconsistencies among the indictment, Deronjic's statements made at the sentencing hearing and witness testimony he gave at other trials. The Trial Chamber says they want to ensure the veracity of the guilty plea and its validity according to the Rules of Procedure and Evidence. The new hearing is scheduled to begin on March 5.

18 February 2004: In the Milosevic case, proceedings are cancelled for today and 19 February due to the ill-health of the accused.

16 February 2004: In the Maglov contempt case, a former defense attorney in the Brdjanin case pleads not guilty to an amended indictment that charges her with intimidating a witness, attempting to intimidate a witness and disclosing the identity and whereabouts of a witness to the public. Testimony is expected through 20 February.

16 February 2004: In Mrksic et al. case, Miroslav Radic and Veslein Sljivancanin plead not guilty to all charges in a new consolidated indictment, including crimes against humanity (persecution, murder, extermination, torture and inhumane acts) and violations of the laws and customs of war (murder, torture, cruel treatment).

13 February 2004: In the Milosevic case, former Bosnian-Serb President Biljana Plavsic will not testify even after being transported to the Hague from prison in Sweden. The decision was made by ICTY Prosecutor Carla del Ponte in light of the limited time the Prosecution has left to conclude its case.

12 February 2004: The Milosevic case marks it two-year anniversary. The Prosecution is due to conclude its case next week. Since the start of the trial, the Prosecution has called nearly 300 witnesses.

11 February 2004: In the Gotovina case, ICTY Prosecutor Carla del Pontes submits an amended indictment against Ante Gotovina to the Tribunal but refuses to say publicly how it has been amended. Del Ponte also says she believes Gotovina is living in Croatia.

10 February 2004: Britain, backed by the United States, submits a draft resolution to the Security Council, proposing a reconfiguration of the ICTY and the relative powers of the Prosecutor and the Tribunal Judges. The resolution would allow the judges to deny indictments submitted to them by the Prosecutor if they feel the suspect is not senior enough. No date has yet been set for a vote on the resolution.

9 February 2004: In the Milosevic and Seselj cases, the ICTY Deputy Registrar extends the communication restrictions placed on Slobodan Milosevic and Vojislav Selelj for another 30 days, noting their refusal to fully cooperate with the Tribunal. The only change is that Milosevic, who is acting as his own lawyer, will be allowed the communications necessary to conduct investigations related to his defense. The restrictions were first imposed in December 2003.

7 February 2004: In the Gotovina case, Ante Gotovina issues a statement to the Croatian newspaper Vercernji List saying once again that he will give himself up only in the charges against him are dropped. He says he will answer questions only if he is seen and treated simply as a suspect rather than an indictee. His statement was in response to a Croatian Deputy Prime Minster urging Gotovina to turn himself in. ITCY Chief Prosecutor Carla del Ponte has said Gotovina would be allowed to defend himself without being taken into custody if he surrendered.

6 February 2004: In the Maglov contempt case, the allegations against Milka Maglov are amended. The former ICTY defense attorney will now be charged with intimidating a witness, attempting to intimidate a witness and disclosing the identity and whereabouts of a witness to the public.

5 February 2004: In the Milosevic case, prosecutors have been given until 19 February to end their case. The court has authorized longer days in these next few weeks in order for the Prosecution to be able to meet that deadline.

5 February 2004: Chief Prosecutor Carla del Ponte announces that the Tribunal will issue eight or nine new indictments against Bosnia-Herzegovina nationals, Bosniaks (Bosnian Moslems), and Croats.

3 February 2004: In the Strugar case, Pavle Strugar's lawyers ask that his trial be adjourned on medical grounds. They claim they are having trouble communicating with Strugar and a report by his psychiatrist claims that Strugar is mentally unfit to stand trial.

3 February 2004: The Krajisnik trial begins following a nine month delay. Momcilo Krajisnik's trial was originally set to begin in May 2003, but his defense attorney was temporarily suspended from the New York Bar shortly before the start of the trial. Krajisnik is charged with eights counts: genocide, complicity in genocide, crimes against humanity (persecution, murder, extermination, deportation, inhumane acts) and war crimes (murder).

02 February 2004: In the Milosevic case, Chief Prosecutor Carla del Ponte warns Belgrade that their refusal to hand over documents is jeopardizing the genocide case against Slobodan Milosevic. She claims to know exactly which documents are missing and where they are.

31 January 2004: In the Gotovina search, Chief Prosecutor Carla del Ponte says that she will allow Ante Gotovina to defend himself without being held in custody if he turns himself in.

30 January 2004: In the Mrksic case, Mile Mrksic is granted a temporary provisional release to attend his mother's funeral in Belgrade. His release begins 31 January and he is ordered to be back by 2 February. As a condition of his release, an official of the Government of Serbia and Montenegro must escort Mrksic until he returns to The Hague.

28 January 2004: In the Babic case, the Court accepts the plea agreement between Milan Babic and the Prosecution. Under the agreement, Babic will plea guilty to one count of crime against humanity (persecutions) and testify in future trials. In exchange, the Prosecution will drop four other charges of war crimes against Babic. A sentencing hearing is set for 1 February.

28 January 2004: In the Deronjic case, Miroslav Deronjic's sentencing hearing wraps up. Deronjic entered into a plea agreement in September 2003 where he agreed to plea guilty to one count of crimes against humanity (persecution) as well as to testify in other trials. During the 2-day hearing, the Prosecution recommended that Deronjic receive a sentence of ten years imprisonment, while the Defense called for six years.

27 January 2004: Chief Prosecutor Carla Del Ponte insists that NATO will capture ICTY Fugitive Radovan Karadzic before the end of the year, despite remarks to the contrary by hear Deputy. Ms. Del Ponte insists that Deputy Prosecutor Graham Belwitt's remarks yesterday that the West did not possess the political will to capture Karadzic did not reflect the position of the Court. Instead she predicted that Karadzic would be captured before the end of the year.

26 January 2004: Deputy prosecutor Graham Blewitt says he feels the West does not have the political will to arrest ICTY Fugitive Radovan Karadzic. In recent weeks, NATO forces have launched several failed raids in Bosnia hoping to capture Karadzic. Karadzic was the first person indicted by the ICTY and is on the top of its most-wanted list.

24 January 2004: The U.S. Senate passes legislation requiring Serbia to do everything possible to arrest ICTY fugitive Ratko Mladic and conditioning $100 million in U.S. aid on its efforts to do so. Unlike previous U.S. initiatives, the latest law does not insist that Mladic is in Serbia, only that the Serbia must do everything possible to arrest him if he is.

21 January 2004: The Court grants Simo Zaric's application for early release citing the fact that he has served over two-thirds of his sentence, his commitment to being reintegrated into society, and his good behavior while imprisoned. Zaric was convicted of one count of crimes against humanity (persecution) and sentenced to six years in prison. He is set to be freed on 28 January.

20 January 2004: In the Milosevic case, the Appeals Chamber dismissed an appeal asking it to grant Slobodan Milosevic more time to prepare his appeal. The Decision upholds the Trail Chamber's earlier ruling granting Milosevic three months to prepare his defense once the Prosecution rests. Milosevic originally requested two years to prepare.

18 January 2004: In the Hadzihasanovic case, Enver Hadzihasanovic was granted provisional release to attend his brother's funeral. He is ordered to return to ICTY Detention on 20 January.

16 January 2004: The Brdjanin case was adjourned until February 9.

16 January 2004: In the Nikolic case, Dragan Nikolic files a notice of appeal on his sentencing. Nikolic was sentenced to 23 years in prison following a plea agreement last year.

13 January 2004: The Milosevic trial resumed after the three-week holiday. With only 15 trial days left for its case in chief, the Prosecution is expected to focus on the charge of genocide.

12 January 2004: Arrest warrants for 12 ICTY fugitives are re-issued, at the request of the Prosecutor. Judge Liu Daqun reissues warrants against Ljubomir Borovcanin, Milan Lukis, Dragomire Milosevic, Sredoje Lukic, Vinko Pandurevic, Vujadin Popovic, Savo Todovic, Dragan Zelenovic, Stojan Zupljanin, Gojko Jankovic, Goran Borovnica, and Ljubisa Beara. Warrants for each of the accused had previously been issued, but by various judges and addressed either to the Prosecutor or a particular State. The re-issued warrants authorize any member State of the UN to arrest the accused and are all issued by a single judge.

11 January 2004: ICTY indictee Slobodan Milosevic's seat in the Serbian Parliament will be taken by another party member, the head of the Socialist Party announces. Milosevic, who is currently on trial at the ICTY, won the seat in last month's elections. Party officials maintain that the seat would be vacated for him if he were to be released by the Tribunal.

9 January 2004: The Registry has extended the communications restrictions placed on Vojislave Seselj and Slobodan Milosevic, due to expire 10 January, for another 30 days. The Registrar cited Seselj's blatant violations of the original restrictions as one reason for the extension. He also felt that allowing the two men to participate in post-election political activities would undermine the Tribunal's mandate to restore and maintain peace in the former Yugoslavia.

8 January 2004: ICTY detainee Vojislave Seselj will not be able to take up his seat in Parliament, despite his win in last month's Serbian elections. The head of Seselj's Radical Party announces today that another party member will be assigned to the seat. If Seselj is released before the expiration of his term, he will be able to retake the seat.