Leo Zwaak is a Senior Researcher at the Netherlands Institute of Human Rights (SIM) and University Lecturer, Utrecht University. Professor Zwaak is currently involved in two projects: the Digest of Strasbourg Case-Law Relating to the European Convention on Human Rights and the Council of Europe and Gross and Systematic Violations of Human Rights in Europe: the Case of Turkey. The Digest project (in cooperation with Council of Europe, Directorate of Human Rights; Professor P. van Dijk, co-editor) is designed to meet the needs of all those who are required to be, or have an interest in becoming, familiar with the case-law of the organs of the European Convention on Human Rights. The present project is an up-date of a six-volume publication on the case-law of the European Commission and Court of Human Rights, covering the period from 1955 to 1996. The Digest is regularly updated. The second project addresses the question of whether the mechanisms under the European Convention on Human Rights will be effective in case of gross and systematic violations of human rights. The case of Turkey shows that the present mechanism lacks effectiveness when dealing with gross violations. Professor Zwaak received his LLM from Utrecht University.