Resources - Juvenile Justice

Government Reports

United States. The Department of Justice/ Bureau of Justice Statistics. Sexual Victimization in Juvenile Facilities Reported by Youth, 2012. Comp by Allen Beck. Washington, DC. June 2013.

United States. The Department of Justice/ Review Panel on Prison Rape. Report on Sexual Victimization in Juvenile Correctional Facilities. Washington, DC. October 2010.


United States. The Department of Justice/ Bureau of Justice Statistics. SPECIAL REPORT: Sexual Victimization in Juvenile Facilities Reported by Youth, 2008-09. Comp by Allen Beck, Paige Harrison and Paul Guerino. Washington, DC. January 2010.


United States. The Department of Justice/ National Prison Rape Elimination Commission. Standards for the Prevention, Detection, Response and Monitoring of Sexual Abuse in Juvenile Facilities. Washington, DC. June 23, 2009.


United States. The Department of Justice/ Bureau of Justice Statistics. The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003: Sexual Violence Reported by Juvenile Correctional Authorities, 2005-06. Comp by Allen Beck, Devon Adams and Paul Guerino. Washington, DC. July 2008.


United States. Department of Justice. Risk Management of Sexually Abusive Youth. Comp. by Robert Prentky. Washington, DC: May 2006.


United States. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Psychiatric Disorders of Youth in Detention. Comp. by Teplin et.al. Washington, DC: April 2006.


United States. U.S. Department of Justice/ National Institute of Corrections. Recognizing and Addressing Sexual Abuse Assault Prevention and Intervention Issues in Your Juvenile Justice Setting. Washington, DC: April 2006.


United States. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report. Comp. by Howard Snyder and Melissa Sickmund. Washington, DC: March 2006.

United States. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. How the Juvenile Justice System Responds to Juvenile Victimization. Comp. by Finkelhor, Cross and Cantor. Washington, DC: December 2005.

United States. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Alternatives to Secure Detention and Confinement of Juvenile Offenders. Comp. by Austin, Johnson, and Weitzer. Washington, DC: September 2005.

United States. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Statutory Rape Known to Law Enforcement. Comp. by Karyl Troup and Howard Snyder. Washington, DC: August 2005.


United States. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. The Mathematics of Risk Classification. Comp. by Gottfredson and Snyder. Washington, DC: July 2005.


United States. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. State Ombudsman Programs. Comp. by Judith Jones and Alvin Cohn. Washington, DC: February 2005.


United States. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Intensive Aftercare for High Risk Juveniles: Policies and Procedures. Comp. by David Altschuler and Troy Armstrong. Washington, DC: September 2004.

United States. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Assessing Mental Health Status of Youth in Juvenile Settings. Comp. by Wasserman, Ko and McReynolds. Washington, DC: August 2004.

United States. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Access to Counsel. Comp. by Judith Jones. Washington, DC: June 2004.

United States. Office of Justice Programs. Juveniles in Corrections. Comp. by Melissa Sickmund. Washington, DC: June 2004.


United States. U.S. Department of Justice/ Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Explanations for the decline in Child Sexual Assault. Comp. by D. Finkelnor and L . Jones. Washington, DC: January 2004.

United States. U.S. Department of Justice/ Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol- II. Comp. by Prentky and Righthand. Washington, DC: 2003.


United States. U.S. Department of Justice/ Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. How Families and Communities Influence Youth Victimization. Comp. by Janet Lauritsen. Washington, DC: November 2003.

United States. Office of Justice Programs. Juvenile Delinquency Probation Caseload, 1990-1999. Comp. by Charles Puzzanchera. Washington, DC: September 2003.

United States. U.S. Department of Justice/ Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Treatment Services and Intervention Programs for Child Delinquents. Comp. by Barbara Burns et. al. Washington, DC: March 2003.

United States. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Battered Child Syndrome: Investigating Physical Abuse and Homicide. Washington, DC: December 2002.

United States. U.S. Department of Justice/ Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Violent Victimization as a Risk Factor for Violent Offending Among Juveniles. Comp. by Jennifer Shaffer and R. Barry Ruback. Washington, DC: December 2002.

United States. U.S. Department of Justice/ National Institute of Justice. Childhood Victimization and Delinquency, Adult Criminality and Violent Criminal Behavior. Comp. by Diana English et. al. Washington, DC: February 2002.

United States. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Juveniles Who Have Sexually Offended. Comp. by Sue Righthand and Carlann Welch. Washington, DC: March 2001.

United States. U.S Department of Justice/ Bureau of Justice Assistance. Juveniles in Adult Prisons and Jails. Comp. by Austin et. al. Washington, DC: October 2000.


United States. U.S Department of Justice/ Bureau of Justice Assistance. BJA Bulletin: Effective Representations for Youth Prosecuted as Adults. Comp. by Malcom C. Young. Washington, DC: August 2000.

United States. Department of Justice. Prevalence and Consequences of Childhood Victimization. Comp. by Kilpatrick and Saunders. Washington, DC: March 2000.

United States. Office of Justice Programs. Understanding Juvenile Sexual Offending Behavior. Comp. by the Center for Sex Offender Management. Washington, DC: December 1999.


United States. U.S. Department of Justice/ Bureau of Justice Statistics. Juveniles Prosecuted in State Criminal Courts. Comp. by Carol DeFrances and Kevin Storm. Washington, DC: March 1997.

United States. U.S Department of Justice/ Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Female Offenders in the Juvenile Justice System: Statistics Summary. Comp. by Eileen Poe-Yamagata and Jeffery Butts. Washington, DC: June 1996.

United States. National Institute of Corrections. Offenders under the Age of 18 in State Adult Correctional Systems: A National Picture. Washington, DC: 1995.


United States. National Institute of Corrections. Meeting the Challenges of Housing Juveniles in Adult Facilities. Comp. by Frank Henn. Washington, DC: 1994.

Publications for Correctional Agencies and Staff

Vincent, Gina M. et. al. Risk Assessment in Juvenile Justice: A Guidebook for Implementation and Appendix. The National Youth Screening and Assessment Project. Worcester, MA. November 2012.

Yarussi, Jaime M. and Brenda V. Smith. Juveniles Convicted as Adults: An Annotated Bibliography of Current Research. Washington, DC. April 2012.

Carle, Susan D., Kathy Tuznik, Aaron Brand and Brenda V. Smith. Labor and Employment Law: Tools for Prevention, Investigation and Discipline of Staff Sexual Misconduct in Custodial Settings. Washington, DC. October 2009.

Smith, Brenda V. and Jaime M. Yarussi. Legal Responses to Sexual Violence in Custody: State Criminal Laws Prohibiting Sexual Abuse of Individuals under Custodial Supervision. Washington, DC. October 2009.


Moss, Andie “The Prison Rape Elimination Act: Implications for Women and Girls.” Corrections Today August 2007: 1-4.


Jones, Maggie. “The Case of the Juvenile Sex Offender.” New York Times Magazine 22 July 2007, Sunday Edition: 33-36; 38-39; 56-58.

Koppelman, Jane. “Mental Health and Juvenile Justice: Moving Towards Effective Systems of Care.” National Health Policy Forum Issue Brief 5 (2005).

Law Reviews and Journal Publications

Smith, Brenda V. "Uncomfortable Places, Close Spaces: Female Correctional Workers’ Sexual Interactions With Men and Boys in Custody" UCLA Law Review UCLA School of Law Los Angeles, CA; Vol. 59 Issue 6: 1690 (2012).

Smith, Brenda V. “The Prison Rape Elimination Act: Implementation and Unresolved Issues Criminal Law Brief American University Washington College of Law Washington, DC; 10-18 (Spring 2008).

Advocacy Group Reports

National Council on Crime and Delinquency. Youth Under 18 in the Criminal Justice System. Comp. by Christopher Hartney. Oakland, CA: June 2006.

Annie E. Casey Foundation. Pathways to Juvenile Justice Reform: Girls- Challenges and Solutions. Comp. by Francine Sherman. Baltimore, MD: 2005.

New Mexico Criminal Justice Analysis Center. Childhood Sexual Abuse in New Mexico Tribal Land. Comp. by Paul Steele et. al. Albuquerque, NM: December 2005.


Annie E. Casey Foundation. Pathways to Juvenile Justice Reform: Improving Conditions of Confinement in Secure Juvenile Detention Facilities. Comp. by Sue Burrell. Baltimore, MD: 2005.

MacArthur Foundation. Double Jeopardy: Juvenile Offenders with Mental Disorders. Comp. by Thomas Grisso. Chicago, IL: 2004.

MacArthur Foundation. Issue Brief 4: Assessing Juvenile Psychopathy- Development and Legal Implications. Comp. by the Research Network on Adolescent Development and Juvenile Justice. Chicago, IL: (no date).

MacArthur Foundation. Executive Summary: Legal Responses to Juvenile Sex Offending. Comp. by Franklin Zimring. Chicago, IL: (no date).

MacArthur Foundation. Creating Turning Point for Serious Adolescent Offenders: Research on Pathways to Desistance. Chicago, IL: (no date).


** The following resources are available in non-electronic formats only. For more information on these publications contact endsilence@wcl.american.edu

Contreras, Aracely. “Girls in America: Sex and Deviance in the Age of HIV and AIDS.” Journal of Gender, Race and Justice 7 (2003): 357-386.


Grayson, Joanne, ed. “Juvenile Sex Offenders.” Virginia Child Protection Newsletter. Volume 34: Virginia Department of Social Services, Bureau of Child Protective Services, Fall 1991.

Grayson, Joanne, ed. “Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Assault.” Virginia Child Protection Newsletter. Volume 31: Virginia Department of Social Services, Bureau of Child Protective Services, Summer 1990.

Grayson, Joanne, ed. “Female Sex Offenders.” Virginia Child Protection Newsletter. Volume 28: Virginia Department of Social Services, Bureau of Child Protective Services, Summer 1989.

Grayson, Joanne, ed. “Sexually Victimized Boys.” Virginia Child Protection Newsletter. Volume 28: Virginia Department of Social Services, Bureau of Child Protective Services, Fall 1989.

Grayson, Joanne, ed. “Prosecuting Child Sex Abuse.” Virginia Child Protection Newsletter. Volume 7: Virginia Department of Social Services, Bureau of Child Protective Services, Spring 1983.

Minnesota. Olmstead Community Corrections. Management Criteria for a Risk Classification Instrument in Community Corrections: A Juvenile Focus. Comp. by Glen Just: (no publication date listed).

Other Resources

Video Conferences


Youthful Offenders in Adult Corrections: Effective Interventions (September 15-19, 2003)
http://nicic.gov/Library/019212

ACA Standards for Juveniles

Staff

  • Suggests that facilities perform criminal background checks on staff with direct contact with youth which ensure the hiring decisions take into account the possible dangers an applicant might pose
  • Staff should be continuously trained on the issues involving staff-youth relationships
  • Offer a youth a same-sex contact person with whom they may feel more comfortable reporting feared, actual, or threatened sexual abuse/ assault
  • One male and one female officer should be on shift in facilities with both male and female youth.
  • Care worker should be within hearing distance of juveniles to ensure the full protection of youth in an emergency setting

ACA-3-JDF-3A-07
ACA-3-JDF-3A-04
ACA-3-JDF-1C-13
ACA-3-JDF-1D-09
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ACA-3-JDF-3D-06-7
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Classification

1. Age
Congress has recognized that the separation of juvenile from adult offenders drastically decreases the likelihood of sexual victimization [42 U.S.C.A. §15601.1(4)]

DOJ OJJDP §4.2111
ACA 3-JDF-2C-02
ABA § 4.11 (c) (2)

2. Gender
Facilities should consider the gender when determining sleep arrangement placements, discouraging the use of co-ed sleeping rooms

ACA-3-JDF-2C-12
ABA § 4.11 (c) (2)

3. Type of Offense
ACA encourages evaluation of a youth’s escape history and assault behavior. They also recommend that facilities identify potential sexual assailants and sexually vulnerable youth upon intake.

ACA-3-JDF-2C-02

Privacy

1. Body Searches:
To prevent the potential opportunities for sexual assault on juvenile wards standards have focused on providing guidelines for the use of body searches and privacy in the bathroom. The ACA encourages that searches are only conducted due to a reasonable suspicion based on specific facts to believe such a person is concealing contraband or a weapon. However, this standard does not apply when upon a juvenile’s entry or re-entry into a facility after having contact with the greater public

ACA-1-SJD-3A-17
ACA-1-SJD-3A-18

2. Bathrooms:
ACA recommends that the temperature of showers in juvenile facilities be no hotter than 120 degrees Fahrenheit to ensure that scalding water is not a punishment method between juveniles

ACA-3-JDF-2C-08

3. Procedures
Staff should report all known abuse and neglect of juveniles

ACA-3-JDF-3D-06-1
ABA § 3.4 (C) (3), (5)

Youth should be provided with information about sexual assault and abuse- including prevention/ intervention, self-protection, reporting sexual abuse, treatment and counseling- upon their arrival to the facility (National Commission on Correctional Healthcare) NCCHC pg 20

ACA-3-JDF-3D-06-2

Recommendations for abuse investigation include automatic and mandatory investigations into any allegation of actual or threatened sexual abuse and that reporting procedures allow for the juvenile to report to a designated staff member other than the point-of-contact staff person

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